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I was troubleshooting a friend's WAG54G and upgraded his firmware to v from v I found that I can consistently cause the router. Cisco Systems PIX Firewall running software versions with SIP support H-Sphere WebShell and prior Hardware/Firmware 3Com OfficeConnect DSL. Voice over IP (VoIP) when Internet technology is used. or firmware. facturers (e.g., Cisco, Nokia, Nortel), computer vendors (e.g., Microsoft. ICHIGO 100 OAV 05 VOSTFR TORRENT Based on the prefer a free statement, these options or beneath the video close-up for GUI mode the currently-selected object. It is the security issues and in the Bookmarks. The steering wheel already been declared. Video codec specifically option requires that.

More specifically, a web page may consist of a resource with zero, one, or more embedded resources intended to be rendered as a single unit, and referred to by the URI of the one resource which is not embedded. A resource may include a network data object or service that can be identified by a URI. Resources may be available in multiple representations e.

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol HTTP is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems, commonly used for communication over the Internet. Hypertext is. HTTP is the protocol to exchange or transfer hypertext, which is a structured text that uses logical links hyperlinks between nodes containing text. HTTP version 1. HTTP functions as a request-response protocol in the client-server computing model.

A web browser, for example, may be the client and an application running on a computer hosting a website may be the server. The client submits an HTTP request message to the server. The server, which provide resources such as HTML files and other content, or performs other functions on behalf of the client, returns a response message to the client.

The response contains completion status information about the request and may also contain requested content in its message body. A web browser is an example of a User Agent UA. Other types of user agent include the indexing software used by search providers web crawlers , voice browsers, mobile apps and other software that accesses, consumes or displays web content. HTTP is designed to permit intermediate network elements to improve or enable communications between clients and servers.

High-traffic websites often benefit from web cache servers that deliver content on behalf of upstream servers to improve response time. Web browsers cache previously accessed web resources and reuse them when possible, to reduce network traffic. HTTP proxy servers at private network boundaries can facilitate communication for clients without a globally routable address, by relaying messages with external servers. Its definition presumes an underlying and reliable transport layer protocol, and Transmission Control Protocol TCP is commonly used.

An HTTP session is a sequence of network request-response transactions. An HTTP server listening on that port waits for a client's request message. The body of this message is typically the requested resource, although an error message or other information may also be returned. HTTP is a stateless protocol. A stateless protocol does not require the HTTP server to retain information or status. Persistent connections provide a mechanism by which a client and a server can signal the close of a TCP connection.

This signaling takes place using the Connection header field. In HTTP 1. The HTTP persistent connections do not use separate keepalive messages, but they allow multiple requests to use a single connection. The advantages of using persistent connections involve lower CPU and memory usage because fewer connections are open simultaneously , enabling HTTP pipelining of requests and responses, reduced network congestion due to fewer TCP connections , and reduced latency in subsequent requests due to minimal handshaking.

Any connection herein may use, or be based on, an HTTP persistent connection. The main motivation for HTTPS is authentication of the visited website and protection of the privacy and integrity of the exchanged data. HTTPS typically provides authentication of the website and associated web server with which one is communicating, which protects against man-in-the-middle attacks. Additionally, it provides bidirectional encryption of communications between a client and server, which protects against eavesdropping and tampering with or forging the contents of the communication.

In practice, this provides a reasonable guarantee that one is communicating with precisely the website that one intended to communicate with as opposed to an impostor , as well as ensuring that the contents of communications between the user and site cannot be read or forged by any third party. This is the case with HTTP transactions over the Internet, where typically only the server is authenticated by the client examining the server's certificate. HTTPS creates a secure channel over an insecure networks, hence ensuring reasonable protection from eavesdroppers and man-in-the-middle attacks, provided that adequate cipher suites are used and that the server certificate is verified and trusted.

This includes the request URL which particular web page was requested , query parameters, headers, and cookies which often contain identity information about the user. In practice this means that even on a correctly configured web server, eavesdroppers can infer the IP address and port number of the web server sometimes even the domain name e.

HTTPS is designed to withstand such attacks and is considered secure against them with the exception of older, deprecated versions of SSL. HTTP Status codes. The Hypertext Transfer Protocol HTTP is a stateless application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypertext information systems.

Status codes are typically issued by a server in response to a client request made to the server. The first digit of the status code specifies one of five standard classes of responses. The message phrases shown are typical, but any human-readable alternative may be provided.

All HTTP response status codes are separated into five classes or categories. The first digit of the status code defines the class of response, while the last two digits do not have any classifying or categorization role. There are five classes defined by the standard: 1xx to informational response—the request was received, continuing process; 2xx to successful—the request was successfully received, understood and accepted; 3xx redirection—further action needs to be taken in order to complete the request; 4xx to client error—the request contains bad syntax or cannot be fulfilled; and 5xx to server error—the server failed to fulfil an apparently valid request.

The actual response will depend on the request method used. In a GET request, the response will contain an entity corresponding to the requested resource. In a POST request, the response will contain an entity describing or containing the result of the action. Further, when the requested information is found but access is not granted, the server may return a error if it wishes to not disclose this information, as well. When communicating via HTTP, a server is required to respond to a request, such as a web browser request for a web page, with a numeric response code and an optional, mandatory, or disallowed based upon the status code message.

The following two digits indicate the specific error encountered. A error is often returned when pages have been moved or deleted. In the first case, it is better to employ URL mapping or URL redirection by returning a Moved Permanently response, which can be configured in most server configuration files, or through URL rewriting; in the second case, a Gone should be returned. Because these two options require special server configuration, most websites do not make use of them. A error indicates that the server itself was found, but that the server was not able to retrieve the requested page.

Except when responding to a HEAD request, the server should include an entity containing an explanation of the error situation, and indicate whether it is a temporary or permanent condition. Likewise, user agents should display any included entity to the user. These response codes are applicable to any request method. URL Redirection. Similarly, domain redirection or domain forwarding is when all pages in a URL domain are redirected to a different domain, as when wikipedia.

URL redirection is done for various reasons: for URL shortening; to prevent broken links when web pages are moved; to allow multiple domain names belonging to the same owner to refer to a single web site; to guide navigation into and out of a website; for privacy protection; and for hostile purposes such as phishing attacks or malware distribution. Many of these status codes are used in URL redirection.

A user agent may carry out the additional action with no user interaction only if the method used in the second request is GET or HEAD. A user agent may automatically redirect a request. A user agent should detect and intervene to prevent cyclical redirects.

In the HTTP protocol used by the World Wide Web, a redirect is a response with a status code beginning with 3 that causes a browser to display a different page. If a client encounters a redirect, it needs to make a number of decisions how to handle the redirect. Different status codes are used by clients to understand the purpose of the redirect, how to handle caching and which request method to use for the subsequent request.

Within the Internet, an Autonomous System AS is a collection of connected Internet Protocol IP routing prefixes under the control of one or more network operators on behalf of a single administrative entity or domain that presents a common, clearly defined routing policy to the Internet.

Originally the definition required control by a single entity, typically an Internet Service Provider ISP or a very large organization with independent connections to multiple networks, that adhere to a single and clearly defined routing policy, as originally defined in RFC Autonomous systems can be grouped into four categories, depending on their connectivity and operating policy.

A multihomed autonomous system is an AS that maintains connections to more than one other AS. This allows the AS to remain connected to the Internet in the event of a complete failure of one of their connections. A stub autonomous system refers to an AS that is connected to only one other AS.

This may be an apparent waste of an AS number if the network's routing policy is the same as its upstream AS's. However, the stub AS may, in fact, have peering with other autonomous systems that is not reflected in public route-view servers. Specific examples include private interconnections in the financial and transportation sectors. A transit autonomous system is an AS that provides connections through itself to other networks.

An Operating System OS is software that manages computer hardware resources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is an essential component of any system software in a computer system, and most application programs usually require an operating system to function. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and will frequently make a system call to an OS function or be interrupted by it.

Current popular server operating systems are based on Microsoft Windows by Microsoft Corporation, headquartered in Redmond, Wash. Stanek, published by Microsoft Press, which is incorporated in its entirety for all purposes as if fully set forth herein. Unix operating systems are widely used in servers. Unix was designed to be portable, multi-tasking and multi-user in a time-sharing configuration, and Unix systems are characterized by various concepts: the use of plain text for storing data; a hierarchical file system; treating devices and certain types of Inter-Process Communication IPC as files; and the use of a large number of software tools, small programs that can be strung together through a command line interpreter using pipes, as opposed to using a single monolithic program that includes all of the same functionality.

Under Unix, the operating system consists of many utilities along with the master control program, the kernel. To mediate such access, the kernel has special rights, reflected in the division between user-space and kernel-space.

Solomon, and Alex Ioescu, published by Microsoft Press in , which are both incorporated in their entirety for all purposes as if fully set forth herein. The Chrome OS is described as including a three-tier architecture: firmware, browser and window manager, and system-level software and userland services. The firmware contributes to fast boot time by not probing for hardware, such as floppy disk drives, that are no longer common on computers, especially netbooks.

The firmware also contributes to security by verifying each step in the boot process and incorporating system recovery. The system-level software includes the Linux kernel that has been patched to improve boot performance. The userland software has been trimmed to essentials, with management by Upstart, which can launch services in parallel, re-spawn crashed jobs, and defer services in the interest of faster booting. Processing time requirements including any OS delay are typically measured in tenths of seconds or shorter increments of time, and is a time bound system which has well defined fixed time constraints.

Processing is commonly to be done within the defined constraints, or the system will fail. They either are event driven or time sharing, where event driven systems switch between tasks based on their priorities while time sharing systems switch the task based on clock interrupts.

A key characteristic of an RTOS is the level of its consistency concerning the amount of time it takes to accept and complete an application's task; the variability is jitter. A hard real-time operating system has less jitter than a soft real-time operating system.

The chief design goal is not high throughput, but rather a guarantee of a soft or hard performance category. An RTOS that can usually or generally meet a deadline is a soft real-time OS, but if it can meet a deadline deterministically it is a hard real-time OS. An RTOS has an advanced algorithm for scheduling, and includes a scheduler flexibility that enables a wider, computer-system orchestration of process priorities.

Key factors in a real-time OS are minimal interrupt latency and minimal thread switching latency; a real-time OS is valued more for how quickly or how predictably it can respond than for the amount of work it can perform in a given period of time. Common designs of RTOS include event-driven, where tasks are switched only when an event of higher priority needs servicing; called preemptive priority, or priority scheduling, and time-sharing, where task are switched on a regular clocked interrupt, and on events; called round robin.

Time sharing designs switch tasks more often than strictly needed, but give smoother multitasking, giving the illusion that a process or user has sole use of a machine. Most tasks are blocked or ready most of the time because generally only one task can run at a time per CPU.

The number of items in the ready queue can vary greatly, depending on the number of tasks the system needs to perform and the type of scheduler that the system uses. On simpler non-preemptive but still multitasking systems, a task has to give up its time on the CPU to other tasks, which can cause the ready queue to have a greater number of overall tasks in the ready to be executed state resource starvation.

QNX was one of the first commercially successful microkernel operating systems and is used in a variety of devices including cars and mobile phones. As a microkernel-based OS, QNX is based on the idea of running most of the operating system kernel in the form of a number of small tasks, known as Resource Managers. In the case of QNX, the use of a microkernel allows users developers to turn off any functionality they do not require without having to change the OS itself; instead, those services will simply not run.

Its features include characteristics such as preemptive tasks, support for multiple microcontroller architectures, a small footprint 4. It also allows an unlimited number of tasks to run at the same time, and no limitation about their priorities as long as used hardware can afford it. A tick-less mode is provided for low power applications, and thread priorities are supported. Four schemes of memory allocation are provided: allocate only; allocate and free with a very simple, fast, algorithm; a more complex but fast allocate and free algorithm with memory coalescence; and C library allocate and free with some mutual exclusion protection.

While the emphasis is on compactness and speed of execution, a command line interface and POSIX-like IO abstraction add-ons are supported. The thread tick method switches tasks depending on priority and a round-robin scheduling scheme. SafeRTOS is known for its ability to reside solely in the on-chip read only memory of a microcontroller for standards compliance. When implemented in hardware memory, SafeRTOS code can only be utilized in its original configuration, so certification testing of systems using this OS need not re-test this portion of their designs during the functional safety certification process.

VxWorks is an RTOS developed as proprietary software and designed for use in embedded systems requiring real-time, deterministic performance and, in many cases, safety and security certification, for industries, such as aerospace and defense, medical devices, industrial equipment, robotics, energy, transportation, network infrastructure, automotive, and consumer electronics.

VxWorks comes with the kernel, middleware, board support packages, Wind River Workbench development suite and complementary third-party software and hardware technologies. In its latest release, VxWorks 7, the RTOS has been re-engineered for modularity and upgradeability so the OS kernel is separate from middleware, applications and other packages.

Scalability, security, safety, connectivity, and graphics have been improved to address Internet of Things IoT needs. Each task runs at a different priority, and runs as if it owns the central processing unit CPU. Lower priority tasks can be preempted by higher priority tasks at any time. Higher priority tasks use operating system OS services such as a delay or event to allow lower priority tasks to execute.

OS services are provided for managing tasks and memory, communicating between tasks, and timing. Process management. The operating system provides an interface between an application program and the computer hardware, so that an application program can interact with the hardware only by obeying rules and procedures programmed into the operating system. The operating system is also a set of services which simplify development and execution of application programs.

Executing an application program involves the creation of a process by the operating system kernel which assigns memory space and other resources, establishes a priority for the process in multi-tasking systems, loads program binary code into memory, and initiates execution of the application program which then interacts with the user and with hardware devices.

The OS must allocate resources to processes, enable processes to share and exchange information, protect the resources of each process from other processes, and enable synchronization among processes. The OS maintains a data structure for each process, which describes the state and resource ownership of that process and enables the OS to exert control over each process.

In many modern operating systems, there can be more than one instance of a program loaded in memory at the same time; for example, more than one user could be executing the same program, each user having separate copies of the program loaded into memory. With some programs, known as re-entrant type, it is possible to have one copy loaded into memory, while several users have shared access to it so that they each can execute the same program-code.

The processor at any instant can only be executing one instruction from one program but several processes can be sustained over a period of time by assigning each process to the processor at intervals while the remainder becomes temporarily inactive.

A number of processes being executed over a period of time instead of at the same time is called concurrent execution. A multiprogramming or multitasking OS is a system executing many processes concurrently. A multiprogramming requires that the processor be allocated to each process for a period of time, and de-allocated at an appropriate moment.

If the processor is de-allocated during the execution of a process, it must be done in such a way that it can be restarted later as easily as possible. Alternatively, a hardware interrupt occurs; for example, a key was pressed on the keyboard, or a timer runs out used in pre-emptive multitasking. The stopping of one process and starting or restarting of another process is called a context switch or context change.

In many modern operating systems, processes can consist of many sub-processes. This introduces the concept of a thread. A thread may be viewed as a sub-process; that is, a separate, independent sequence of execution within the code of one process. Threads are becoming increasingly important in the design of distributed and client-server systems and in software run on multi-processor systems.

Many contemporary processors incorporate a mode bit to define the execution capability of a program in the processor. This bit can be set to a kernel mode or a user mode. A kernel mode is also commonly referred to as supervisor mode, monitor mode or ring 0.

In kernel mode, the processor can execute every instruction in its hardware repertoire, whereas in user mode, it can only execute a subset of the instructions. Instructions that can be executed only in kernel mode are called kernel, privileged or protected instructions to distinguish them from the user mode instructions.

The system may logically extend the mode bit to define areas of memory to be used when the processor is in kernel mode versus user mode. If the mode bit is set to kernel mode, the process executing in the processor can access either the kernel or user partition of the memory.

However, if user mode is set, the process can reference only the user memory space, hence two classes of memory are defined, the user space and the system space or kernel, supervisor or protected space. In general, the mode bit extends the operating system's protection rights, and is set by the user mode trap instruction, also called a supervisor call instruction. This instruction sets the mode bit, and branches to a fixed location in the system space. Since only the system code is loaded in the system space, only the system code can be invoked via a trap.

When the OS has completed the supervisor call, it resets the mode bit to user mode prior to the return. A protection ring is one of two or more hierarchical levels or layers of privilege within the architecture of a computer system.

These levels may be hardware-enforced by some CPU architectures that provide different CPU modes at the hardware or microcode level. Rings are arranged in a hierarchy from most privileged most trusted, usually numbered zero to least privileged least trusted, usually with the highest ring number.

Special gates between rings are provided to allow an outer ring to access an inner ring's resources in a predefined manner, as opposed to allowing arbitrary usage. Correctly gating access between rings can improve security by preventing programs from one ring or privilege level from misusing resources intended for programs in another. For example, spyware running as a user program in Ring 3 should be prevented from turning on a web camera without informing the user, since hardware access should be a Ring 1 function reserved for device drivers.

Programs such as web browsers running in higher numbered rings must request access to the network, a resource restricted to a lower numbered ring. With the aid of the firmware and device drivers, the kernel provides the most basic level of control over all of the computer's hardware devices.

It manages memory access for programs in the RAM, it determines which programs get access to which hardware resources, it sets up or resets the CPU's operating states for optimal operation at all times, and it organizes the data for long-term non-volatile storage with file systems on such media as disks, tapes, flash memory, etc.

The part of the system executing in kernel supervisor state is called the kernel, or nucleus, of the operating system. The kernel operates as trusted software, meaning that when it was designed and implemented, it was intended to implement protection mechanisms that could not be covertly changed through the actions of untrusted software executing in user space.

Extensions to the OS execute in user mode, so the OS does not rely on the correctness of those parts of the system software for correct operation of the OS. Hence, a fundamental design decision for any function to be incorporated into the OS is whether it needs to be implemented in the kernel.

If it is implemented in the kernel, it will execute in kernel supervisor space, and have access to other parts of the kernel. It will also be trusted software by the other parts of the kernel. If the function is implemented to execute in user mode, it will have no access to kernel data structures. Operating systems are typically with one or the other of these two facilities, but commonly not both. Assuming that a user process wishes to invoke a particular target system function, in the system call approach, the user process uses the trap instruction, so the system call should appear to be an ordinary procedure call to the application program; the OS provides a library of user functions with names corresponding to each actual system call.

Each of these stub functions contains a trap to the OS function, and when the application program calls the stub, it executes the trap instruction, which switches the CPU to kernel mode, and then branches indirectly through an OS table , to the entry point of the function which is to be invoked.

When the function completes, it switches the processor to user mode and then returns control to the user process; thus simulating a normal procedure return. In the message passing approach, the user process constructs a message, that describes the desired service, and then it uses a trusted send function to pass the message to a trusted OS process. The send function serves the same purpose as the trap; that is, it carefully checks the message, switches the processor to kernel mode, and then delivers the message to a process that implements the target functions.

Meanwhile, the user process waits for the result of the service request with a message receive operation. When the OS process completes the operation, it sends a message back to the user process. Interrupts handling. Interrupts are central to operating systems, as they provide an efficient way for the operating system to interact with and react to its environment.

Interrupts are typically handled by the operating system's kernel, and provide a computer with a way of automatically saving local register contexts, and running specific code in response to events. When an interrupt is received, the computer's hardware automatically suspends whatever program is currently running, saves its status, and runs computer code previously associated with the interrupt. When a hardware device triggers an interrupt, the operating system's kernel decides how to deal with this event, generally by running some processing code.

The amount of code being run depends on the priority of the interrupt, and the processing of hardware interrupts is executed by a device driver, which may be either part of the operating system's kernel, part of another program, or both. Device drivers may then relay information to a running program by various means. A program may also trigger an interrupt to the operating system. For example, if a program wishes to access a hardware such as a peripheral , it may interrupt the operating system's kernel, which causes control to be passed back to the kernel.

The kernel will then process the request. If a program wishes additional resources or wishes to shed resources such as memory, it will trigger an interrupt to get the kernel's attention. Each interrupt has its own interrupt handler. The number of hardware interrupts is limited by the number of interrupt request IRQ lines to the processor, but there may be hundreds of different software interrupts. Interrupts are a commonly used technique for computer multitasking, especially in real-time computing systems, which are commonly referred to as interrupt-driven systems.

Memory management. A multiprogramming operating system kernel is responsible for managing all system memory which is currently in use by programs, ensuring that a program does not interfere with memory already in use by another program. Since programs time share, each program must have independent access to memory. Memory protection enables the kernel to limit a process' access to the computer's memory. Various methods of memory protection exist, including memory segmentation and paging.

In both segmentation and paging, certain protected mode registers specify to the CPU what memory address it should allow a running program to access. Attempts to access other addresses will trigger an interrupt which will cause the CPU to re-enter supervisor mode, placing the kernel in charge.

This is called a segmentation violation or Seg-V , and the kernel will generally resort to terminating the offending program, and will report the error. Memory management further provides ways to dynamically allocate portions of memory to programs at their request, and free it for reuse when no longer needed. This is critical for any advanced computer system where more than a single process might be underway at any time. Several methods have been devised that increase the effectiveness of memory management.

Virtual memory systems separate the memory addresses used by a process from actual physical addresses, allowing separation of processes and increasing the effectively available amount of RAM using paging or swapping to secondary storage. The quality of the virtual memory manager can have an extensive effect on overall system performance.

File system. Commonly a file system or filesystem is used to control how data is stored and retrieved. There are many different kinds of file systems. Each one has a different structure and logic, properties of speed, flexibility, security, size and more.

Some file systems have been designed to be used for specific applications. For example, the ISO file system is designed specifically for optical discs. File systems can be used on many different kinds of storage devices. Some file systems are used on local data storage devices; others provide file access via a network protocol for example, NFS, SMB, or 9P clients.

The file system manages access to both the content of files and the metadata about those files. It is responsible for arranging storage space; reliability, efficiency, and tuning with regard to the physical storage medium are important design considerations. A disk file system takes advantages of the ability of disk storage media to randomly address data in a short amount of time. Additional considerations include the speed of accessing data following that initially requested and the anticipation that the following data may also be requested.

This permits multiple users or processes access to various data on the disk without regard to the sequential location of the data. Some disk file systems are journaling file systems or versioning file systems. TMPFS or tmpfs is a common name for a temporary file storage facility on many Unix-like operating systems. While intended to appear as a mounted file system, it is stored in volatile memory instead of a non-volatile storage device. A similar construction is a RAM disk, which appears as a virtual disk drive and hosts a disk file system.

The tmpfs is typically a file system based on SunOS virtual memory resources, which does not use traditional non-volatile media to store file data; instead, tmpfs files exist solely in virtual memory maintained by the UNIX kernel. Because tmpfs file systems do not use dedicated physical memory for file data, but instead use VM system resources and facilities, they can take advantage of kernel resource management policies.

Tmpfs maximizes file manipulation speed while preserving UNIX file semantics. It does not require dedicated disk space for files and has no negative performance impact. The tmpfs is described in a Sun Microsystem Inc. Device drivers. A device driver is a specific type of computer software developed to allow interaction with hardware devices. It is a specialized hardware-dependent computer program which is also operating system specific that enables another program, typically an operating system or applications software package or computer program running under the operating system kernel, to interact transparently with a hardware device, and usually provides the requisite interrupt handling necessary for any necessary asynchronous time-dependent hardware interfacing needs.

Most operating systems support a variety of networking protocols, hardware, and applications for using them, allowing computers running dissimilar operating systems to participate in a common network, for sharing resources such as computing, files, printers, and scanners, using either wired or wireless connections. Networking can essentially allow a computer's operating system to access the resources of a remote computer, to support the same functions as it could if those resources were connected directly to the local computer.

This includes everything from simple communication, to using networked file systems, or sharing another computer's graphics or sound hardware. Some network services allow the resources of a computer to be accessed transparently, such as SSH, which allows networked users direct access to a computer's command line interface.

Servers offer or host various services to other network computers and users. These services are usually provided through ports or numbered access points beyond the server's network address. Each port number is usually associated with a maximum of one running program, which is responsible for handling requests to that port. A daemon, being a user program, can in turn access the local hardware resources of that computer by passing requests to the operating system kernel. The inputs are typically the signals or data received by the system, and the outputs are the signals or data sent from it.

For instance, a keyboard or a mouse may be an input device for a computer, while monitors and printers are considered output devices for a computer. Devices for communication between computers, such as modems and network cards, typically serve for both input and output. User interface. The user interface views the directory structure and requests services from the operating system that will acquire data from input hardware devices, such as a keyboard, mouse or credit card reader, and requests operating system services to display prompts, status messages and such on output hardware devices, such as a video monitor or printer.

The two most common forms of a user interface have historically been the command-line interface, where computer commands are typed out line-by-line, and the Graphical User Interface GUI , where a visual environment most commonly a WIMP is present. Typically the GUI is integrated into the kernel, allowing the GUI to be more responsive by reducing the number of context switches required for the GUI to perform its output functions.

The Windows Driver Model WDM , also known as the Win32 Driver Model, is a standard model defining a framework for device drivers specified by Microsoft, providing unified driver models. Dennis R. Hafermann dated Jan. In the example shown, three applications designated as application 1 a , application 2 b , and application 3 c , are accessing three peripheral hardware devices, designated as peripheral 1 a , peripheral 2 b , and peripheral 3 c.

The model involves three layers. The lower layer is the hardware layer c , which includes the hardware devices and peripherals, accessed by a processor such as a processor 27 via a hardware bus d , which may correspond to an internal bus 13 shown in FIG. The kernel mode may be supported by the processor hardware, or may be supported by a code segment level. The user mode applications such as application 1 a , application 2 b , and application 3 c access the kernel space b by the invoking of system calls respectively denoted as connections a , b and c.

Typically, such system calls are processed via intermediating entity known as Windows API, such as a Win32 API , which access the kernel space b via a standard messaging The core DLLs of the Win32 include the kernel Saeed, published by Brook Miles, downloaded from the Internet on July , which is incorporated in its entirety for all purposes as if fully set forth herein.

System calls provide an essential interface between a process and the operating system. A system call is how a program requests a service from an operating system's kernel. This may include hardware related services e. A system call is typically processed in the kernel mode, which is accomplished by changing the processor execution mode to a more privileged one. The hardware sees the world in terms of the execution mode according to the processor status register, and processes are an abstraction provided by the operating system.

A system call does not require a context switch to another process, it is processed in the context of whichever process invoked it. The system calls are often executed via traps or interrupts; that automatically puts the CPU into some required privilege level, and then passes control to the kernel, which determines whether the calling program should be granted the requested service.

If the service is granted, the kernel executes a specific set of instructions over which the calling program has no direct control, returns the privilege level to that of the calling program, and then returns control to the calling program. Implementing system calls requires a control transfer, which involves some sort of architecture-specific feature.

It translates user-mode read and write commands into read or write IRPs which it passes to device drivers. It also includes a cache manager to improve disk performance by caching read requests and write to the disk in the background. It also has the responsibility to stop and start devices on demand, which can happen when a bus such as USB or FireWire gains a new device and needs to have a device driver loaded to support it. The PnP manager a may be partly implemented in user mode, in the Plug and Play Service, which handles the often complex tasks of installing the appropriate drivers, notifying services and applications of the arrival of new devices, and displaying GUI to the user.

However, IRPs are sometimes created by the plug-and-play manager, power manager, and other system components, and can also be created by drivers and then passed to other drivers. The WDM uses kernel-mode device drivers to enable it to interact with hardware devices, where each of the drivers has well defined system routines and internal routines that it exports to the rest of the operating system.

DriverEntry is the first routine called after a driver is loaded, and is responsible for initializing the driver. The drivers may be aggregated as a driver stack , including kernel mode drivers in three levels: highest level drivers a , intermediate drivers b , and low level drivers c. The highest level drivers a , such as file system drivers for FAT and NTFS, rely on the intermediate drivers b , which consist of function drivers or main driver for a device, that are optionally sandwiched between lower and higher level filter drivers.

The highest level drivers typically know how files are represented on disk, but not the details of how to actually fetch the data, the intermediate level drivers process the requests from the highest level driver by breaking down a large request into a series of small chunks. The function driver commonly possesses the details relating to how the hardware of the peripheral works, typically relies on a bus driver, or a driver that services a bus controller, adapter, or bridge, which can have an optional bus filter driver that sits between itself and the function driver.

Intermediate drivers b rely on the low level drivers c to function. The lowest level drivers c are either legacy device drivers that control a device directly, or can be a PnP hardware bus. These lower level drivers c directly control hardware and do not rely on any other drivers. WDM drivers can be classified into the following types and sub-types: Device function drivers, bus drivers, and filter drivers.

A function driver is the main driver for a device. A function driver is typically written by the device vendor and is required unless the device is being used in raw mode. A function driver can service one or more devices. They are hardware specific, but the control access to the hardware is through a specific bus class driver.

Class drivers are a type of function drivers and can be thought of as built-in framework drivers that miniport and other class drivers can be built on top of. The class drivers provide interfaces between different levels of the WDM architecture. Common functionality between different classes of drivers can be written into the class driver and used by other class and miniport drivers.

The lower edge of the class driver will have its interface exposed to the miniport driver, while the upper edge of top level class drivers is operating system specific. Class drivers can be dynamically loaded and unloaded at will. They can do class specific functions that are not hardware or bus-specific with the exception of bus-type class drivers and in fact sometimes only do class specific functions such as enumeration.

A bus driver services a bus controller, adapter, or bridge. A bus driver can service more than one bus if there is more than one bus of the same type on the machine. For example, accessing a hard disk such as HDD 25 c involves a file system driver as high-level driver, a volume manager driver as intermediate level driver, and a disk driver as a low-level driver. Filter drivers are optional drivers that add value to or modify the behavior of a device and may be non-device drivers.

A filter driver can also service one or more devices. Upper level filter drivers sit above the primary driver for the device the function driver , while lower level filter drivers sit below the function driver and above the bus driver. A driver service is a type of kernel-level filter driver implemented as a Windows service that enables applications to work with devices.

The Hardware Abstraction Layer , or HAL, is a layer between the physical hardware layer c of the computer and the rest of the operating system. It was designed to hide differences in hardware and therefore provide a consistent platform on which the kernel is run. Typically the particular hardware abstraction does not involve abstracting the instruction set, which generally falls under the wider concept of portability.

Abstracting the instruction set, when necessary such as for handling the several revisions to the x86 instruction set, or emulating a missing math coprocessor , is performed by the kernel, or via platform virtualization. Linux is a Unix-like and mostly POSIX-compliant computer operating system assembled under the model of free and open source software development and distribution.

The defining component of Linux is the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on 5 Oct. Linux was originally developed as a free operating system for Intel xbased personal computers, but has since been ported to more computer hardware platforms than any other operating system.

Linux also runs on embedded systems such as mobile phones, tablet computers, network routers, facility automation controls, televisions, and video game consoles. Android, which is a widely used operating system for mobile devices, is built on top of the Linux kernel. Typically, Linux is packaged in a format known as a Linux distribution for desktop and server use.

Linux distributions include the Linux kernel, supporting utilities and libraries and usually a large amount of application software to fulfill the distribution's intended use. A Linux-based system is a modular Unix-like operating system. Such a system uses a monolithic kernel, the Linux kernel, which handles process control, networking, and peripheral and file system access.

Device drivers are either integrated directly with the kernel or added as modules loaded while the system is running. Some components of an installed Linux system are a bootloader, for example GNU GRUB or LILO, which is executed by the computer when it is first turned on, and loads the Linux kernel into memory; an init program, which is the first process launched by the Linux kernel, and is at the root of the process tree, and starts processes such as system services and login prompts whether graphical or in terminal mode ; Software libraries which contain code which can be used by running processes; and user interface programs such as command shells or windowing environments.

The general schematic Linux driver architecture is shown in FIG. The Linux kernel is based on a layered modules stack , which may include three levels of modules, such as module 1 a , module 2 b , and module 3 c , where the module 1 a communicate over connection a with the system call interface , the module 2 b communicates with the module 1 a over connection b , the module 3 c communicates over the connection c with the module 2 b and over a connection d with the HAL The modules in the modules stack , typically referred to as Loadable Kernel Modules or LKM , are object files that contain code to extend the running Linux kernel, or so-called base kernel.

When the functionality provided by a LKM is no longer required, it can be unloaded in order to free memory and other resources. The lsmod command lists the loaded kernel modules. In emergency cases, when the system fails to boot due to e.

An initramfs system may load specific modules needed for a machine at boot and then disable module loading. A multitasking is a method where multiple tasks also known as processes or programs are performed during the same period of time, and executed concurrently in overlapping time periods, new tasks starting before others have ended instead of sequentially one completing before the next starts.

The tasks share common processing resources, such as a CPU and main memory. Multitasking does not necessarily mean that multiple tasks are being executed, exactly at the same instant. In other words, multitasking does not imply parallelism, but it does mean that more than one task can be part-way through execution at the same time, and more than one task is advancing over a given period of time.

In the case of a computer with a single CPU, only one task is said to be running at any point in time, meaning that the CPU is actively executing instructions for that task. Multitasking solves the problem by scheduling which task may be the one running at any given time, and when another waiting task gets its turn.

The act of reassigning a CPU from one task to another one is called a context switch. When context switches occur frequently enough, the illusion of parallelism is achieved. Even on computers with more than one CPU called multiprocessor machines or more than one core in a given CPU called multicore machines , where more than one task can be executed at a given instant one per CPU or core , multitasking allows many more tasks to be run than the number of available CPUs.

Operating systems may adopt one of many different scheduling strategies. In multiprogramming systems, the running task keeps running until it performs an operation that requires waiting for an external event e. Multiprogramming systems are designed to maximize CPU usage. In time-sharing systems, the running task is required to relinquish the CPU, either voluntarily or by an external event such as a hardware interrupt. Time sharing systems are designed to allow several programs to execute simultaneously.

In real-time systems, some waiting tasks are guaranteed to the CPU when an external event occurs. These features are all orderable via simple software keycodes and do not require extra hardware. Nortel Business Communications Manager - 1. The analog direct inward dialing ADID4 MBM provides an interface for four or analog public switched telephone network PSTN lines; Supports both pulse and tone dialing as well as disconnect supervision, and direct inward dialing call progress signaling as described in standard TIAC.

The analog direct inward dialing ADID8 MBM provides an interface for eight or analog public switched telephone network PSTN lines; Supports both pulse and tone dialing as well as disconnect supervision, and direct inward dialing call progress signaling as described in standard TIAC. The front bezel of the DTM has an RJC connector that connects the DTM to the service provider connection point; The faceplate also has a set of monitor jacks you can use to monitor the span. The Nortel Business Communications Manager - the unified communications solution that gives you an edge on your competition!

Nortel BCM 6. Nortel BCM 5.

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Close this window and log in. Join Us Close. Join Tek-Tips Forums! Join Us! By joining you are opting in to receive e-mail. Promoting, selling, recruiting, coursework and thesis posting is forbidden. Students Click Here. Can you explain in more detail please?. Are you suggesting that the I phone will support firmware D93?. Are you planning on converting a I to work as a SIP phone? I have attached a guide that I think relates to your problem.

Yes, that is correct Firebird. God, I hate that company. I found B76 and B76 -- I don't recall is one is Phase 0 or Phase 1 or if one is for the i, and the other the i It's a two-stage process that involves loading CT12D97 first. Some is phones came preloaded with SIP from the factory, but I can't find the product codes on their website which says which code it was.

I wonder if they will work on non-MCS systems. I hate Avaya. I've been on Avaya's website and downloaded a load of stuff to do with "Multimedia Communication Server ", but I'm still unable to find the SIP software for the Ix phones. I'll keep looking tomorrow. Might only be on the Aura or servers I wonder. It's in that ISO. The only file of interest was called "SIP. September 30, Documentation may indicate the use a file named it ftp. The correct name of the file is t ftp.

The correct name of the file is sysConfig. The correct name of the file is SIP. Is there a way for me to download the latest formware for my i phase 2 phones and upload to the bcm so it can be pushed out by the bcm? Upgrading of the firmware is dependent upon a BCM system patch that includes the set firmware.

This is applicable to all BCM platforms. BCM system patches will be delivered initially as atomic patches that are individually installable. These patches will be rolled up into a monthly Smart Update which includes all atomic patch content since the previous Smart Update. This is only the case for the BCM platform. If you are running 4.

For BCM 50 3. UTPS provides the same firmware. For BCM 1. In the latter two cases, these updates may already be included in the latest SU. The current FW is B59 for the i I am assuming the set needs a later release in order for the module to function.

My server is running 3. I am not sure about upping if even possible the system FW or if it can be done direct via the set. Any help and how-to will be appreciated. The key module might not be supported in the firmware release you have, or the BCM release you have. I would suggest you post your question on Tek-Tips and see if anyone there can help you. Hi I am trying to connect the Nortel e ip phone to a cisco call manger ver 7.

I get a error and in the logs of the CUCM i see uthentication problem. Has anyone done this and if with success please help. Thanks Lance. I am trying to connect a i with Asterisk, I read some documentation and i can receive and dial calls, but I dont see in the LED the number that Im dialing even i dont hear any dtmfs,. I need to configure a i at a remote site. I have built a tn and assigned a dn at the pbx. When I connect the phone to the network at the remote site, will I need a user name, password, and activation key?

If so, where do I get that? Also, what are the configuration steps? After reading your forum i was able to configure my dhcp server and switch. HP Procurve. I have not been able to get full dhcp to work, but partial dhcp works fine. However, i cannot seem to get the remote site to connect. I can ping the call server from remote, but the phones wont connect to it. I was hoping you could help me with this issue. I was setting up an I nortel phone in our office and i got it going, put in all the necessary codes, tn;s, you name it, but for some stupid reason, i could not get it to give dial tone from handset when picked up directly or even when i pick up handset and click on the line key.

Will just stay blank. What code am i missing? Is it something on the Telephone Manager under Functions, or is it a key? Please help. And in turn any device connected to the PC port on the phone will only be able to connect at a max of Mbps. You would need to replace your i with an e or similar. That makes me think that it just might work.

Decisions, decisions. Thanks for the reply! The phone was looking for file tftp. Oh well, at least it still works. Been buying some extra phones to use at home over vpn connection, and to play around with a bit. The guy who actually handles the phone stuff has pretty much stopped answering my emails and calls, lol.

So wondering what I am missing? Does an E use a different Node Type? Love your site. I have a CS pbx, and am using around i phones. When plugging in the phone, we see the Speakerphone, Headset and Mute LEDs light up, but the voicemail light does not turn on like it normally should. After about seconds, the three lit LEDs turn off, and nothing else happens. A known working phone can be plugged into the same port with no problems.

Any ideas on what could cause that? It seems that once this happens, the phone is completely unusable. How do you get started? Thanks for the comment! Thanks in advance, Glen.

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