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Designed by. Reply Sarrazolla says: 13 March, at pm This was my family! Not all their close relatives were executed, my ancestors were exiled to Macau instead of being executed with the rest of their family. I have been told this story ever since I was a child, but only recently have I learned the name of the main family involved in the event.
We still hold they were wrongly accused. But, as someone said earlier, only God knows for sure. In he assumed the name Fernandes. He became Capt. Please tell me more. I am presumed a relative. Keep your nose clean. The whole thing stinks of a man hell bent and hell bound? Reply Virgil says: 12 November, at am Fantastic account of the execution if it is all factual. I find this barbarity abhorrent and disgraceful. Spain should of intervened with France to stop this shameful injustice.
Reply S. Reply merl says: 10 September, at pm Why did the most guilty receive the easiest death? For the same reason women convicted of treason and several other crimes in England were burned alive as hanging drawing and quartering would have required parts of their bodies to be exposed and presumably excite lust amongst the audience.
To me the most bizarre and horrible thing is that the very worst death was reserved not to the Duke or the Count or the Marchioness or the Colonel but to a valet who was presumably the most junior member of the whole conspiracy. Rosen says: 25 October, at am Because she was an old woman. Her husband was also killed more quickly. Reply Pingback: ExecutedToday. Pridobljeno V vinogradih so bili slapov in vodovodi.
Pombal je mirno umrl na svojem posestvu Pombal leta Na trgu je tudi impozanten markizov kip, ki prikazuje leva. She was a devout woman and was influenced by the Jesuits, and upon her ascension to the throne, she did what she had long vowed to do: she withdrew all his political offices. She also issued one of history's first restraining orders , commanding that Pombal not be closer than 20 miles to her presence.
If she were to travel near his estates, he was compelled to remove himself from his house to fulfill the royal decree. The slightest reference in her hearing to Pombal is said to have induced fits of rage in the Queen. Pombal built a palace in Oeiras, designed by Carlos Mardel.
The palace featured formal French gardens enlivened with traditional Portuguese glazed tile walls. There were waterfalls and waterworks set within vineyards. Pombal died peacefully on his estate at Pombal in There is an imposing statue of the Marquis depicting a lion next to him in the square as well. Marquis de Pombal Please help support the mission of New Advent and get the full contents of this website as an instant download. The son of a country gentleman of modest means, b.
He was said to have been educated at the University of Coimbra and served for a time in the army. Pombal then retired to a country estate near Soure, and in his thirty-ninth year received his first public appointment, being sent as minister to London in In he was transferred to Vienna, where his work was to effect a reconciliation between the pope and the empress; there in the same year he married as his second wife the daughter of Field Marshal Daun, a union brought about by the influence of John V's Austrian wife, who befriended him more than once, though the king disliked him and recalled him in The distinguished diplomat, D.
Luiz da Cunha, had recommended Pombal to Joseph when the latter was only prince, but it was the faovur of the queen-mother and perhaps also of a Jesuit, Father Moreira, that secured him the coveted post. His superior intelligence and masterful will enabled him in a short time to dominate his colleagues, who were dismissed or made insignificant, and with the acquiescence of his royal master he became the first power in the State.
Some years later the English ambassador said of him, "with all his faults, he is the sole man in this kingdom capable of being at the head of affairs". His energy after the earthquake, 1 Nov. The mysterious attempt, 3 Sept. He magnified an act of private vengeance on the part of the Duke of Aveiro into a widespread conspiracy, and after a trial which was a mockery, the duke, members of the Tavora family and their servants were publicly put to death with horrible cruelties at Belem, 13 Jan.
If true, this explains in part the leniency shown him after his fall by Joseph's daughter and successor, Queen Maria. The so-called Pombaline terror dates from these executions. The people were effectively cowed when they saw that perpetual imprisonment, exile, and death rewarded the enemies or even the critics of the dictator. He was bound to come into conflict with the Jesuits, who exercised no small influence at Court and in the country.
They appear to have blocked his projects to marry the heiress presumptive to the Protestant Duke of Cumberland and to grant privileges to the Jews in return for aid in rebuilding Lisbon, but the first open dispute arose over the execution of the Treaty of Limits 13 Jan. When the Indians declined to leave their houses in compliance with its provisions and had to be coerced, Pombal attributed their refusal to Jesuit machinations.
Various other difficulties of the Government were laid to their charge and by the cumulative effect of these accusations, the minister prepared king and public for a campaign against the Society in which he was inspired by the Jansenist and Regalist ideas then current in Europe.
He had begun his open attack by having the Jesuit confessors dismissed from Court, 20 Sept. On 19 Jan. The previous year he had obtained from Benedict XIV the appointment of a creature of his, Cardinal Saldanha, as visitor, with power to reform the Society, but events proved that his real intention was to end it.
Still not content with his victory, he determined to humiliate it in the person of a conspicuous member, and himself denounced Father Gabriel Malagrida to the Inquisition for crimes against the Faith. He caused the old missionary, who had lost his wits through suffering, to be strangled and then burnt.
He entered into negotiations with the Courts of Spain, France, and Naples to win from the pope by joint action the suppression of the Society, and having no success with Clement XIII, he expelled the Nuncio 17 June, , and broke off relations with Rome. The bishops were compelled to exercise functions reserved to the Holy See and the Portuguese Church came to have Pombal as its effective head.
In Clement XIV, to prevent a schism, yielded to the pressure brought to bear on him and suppressed the Society. As soon as he was sure of success, Pombal made peace with Rome and in June, , admitted a nuncio, but the ecclesiastical system of Portugal remained henceforth a sort of disguised Anglicanism, and many of the evils from which the Church now suffers are a legacy from him.
In the political sphere Pombal's administration was marked by boldness of conception and tenacity of purpose. It differed from the preceding in these particulars: 1 he levelled all classes before the royal authority; 2 he imposed absolute obedience to the law, which was largely decided by himself, because the Cortes had long ceased to meet; 3 he transformed the Inquisition into a mere department of the State.
In the economic sphere, impressed by British commercial supremacy, he sought and with success to improve the material condition of Portugal. Nearly all the privileged companies and monopolies he founded ended in financial failure and helped the few rather than the many, yet when the populace of Operto rose in protest against the Alto Douro Wine Company, they were punished with ruthless severity, as was the fishing village of Trafaria, which was burnt by the minister's orders when it sheltered some unwilling recruits.
His methods were the same with all classes. Justice went by the board in face of the reason of state; nevertheless he corrected many abuses in the administration. His activity penetrated every department. His most notable legislative work included the abolition of Indian slavery and of the odious distinction between old and new Christians, a radical reorganization of the finances, the reform of the University of Coimbra, the army and navy, and the foundation of the College of Nobles, the School of Commerce, and the Royal Press.
He started various manufactures to render Portugal less dependent on Great Britain and his Chartered Companies had the same object, but he maintained the old political alliance between the two nations, though he took a bolder attitude than previous ministers had dared to do, both as regards England and other countries, and left a full treasury when the death of King Joseph, on 24 Feb. He died in retirement, having for years suffered from leprosy and the fear of the punishment he had meted out to others.
The bishop of Coimbra presided at his funeral, while a well-known Benedictine delivered the panegyric. Even to the end Pombal had many admirers among the clergy, and he is regarded by the Portuguese as one of their greatest statesmen and called the great Marquis. Prestage, E. Marquis de Pombal. Prestage, Edgar. With thanks to St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio. June 1, Remy Lafort, S. Ignatius of Loyola in , just 11 years after he founded the Society of Jesus Jesuits.
It quickly grew to include classes from elementary school through university level and moved to several successive locations to accommodate its burgeoning student population. Ignatius in , and a renowned observatory in The college remained at this location for years until the revolutionary Capture of Rome in In , the remaining philosophical and theological faculties of the Roman College moved to new quarters and formed the Gregorian University , named after the College's patron.
Though taken over by the Italian government, the original buildings on a full square block memorialize the early commitment of the Jesuits to education. Currently, its eastern wing houses the headquarters of the Ministry of Heritage and Culture with entrance on Via del Collegio Romano and the wing overlooking the square is home to the high school Ennio Quirino Visconti.
The first university founded by the Jesuits was the College of Messina in Then in , to make up for the shortage of public schools in Rome and to provide for better training of both religious and secular clergy during the Counter-Reformation period, the Roman College was founded,  open only to men.
He had been a professed member of the Society of Jesus since but secretly; he retained his rank while attending to his obligations and settling his children. In the Collegio Romano was a small, rented building at the base of the Capitoline Hill , on today's Piazza d'Aracoeli. Jesuit Fr. Polanco wrote of teaching Latin and Greek and later Hebrew: "Christian doctrine is taught. Above the door of the school a sign says: a free school of grammar, humanism, and Christian doctrine.
Within its first year the building could not accommodate the influx of students and Ignatius sought a larger facility. This second home of the Roman College was called the House of Frangipani after the famous family which owned it. The building was later demolished. This then was the second home of the Roman College. Despite the cost, Ignatius wanted to begin teaching philosophy and theology in the school year — This increased the student body, both of Jesuits and externs.
In , the financial conditions became such that the students had to be distributed among the various colleges of the Society in Italy. On 17 January Pope Paul IV, seeing the great good that the Collegio Romano was for the young, gave it the privilege of conferring degrees in philosophy and theology with all the privileges of other universities. At this time also Ignatius founded the print shop which over the years introduced new typefaces, becoming the model in the business.
Due to flood damage in that part of the House of Frangipani, and because of the growing number of students, the Roman College in moved to the house of Giovan Battista Salviati, that connected to the back of the church of Santa Maria in Via Lata , on the east side of today's Piazza del Collegio Romano. Jesuit theologian Francisco de Toledo was a professor at the college at this time.
Four years later, the Roman College became too small for the growing number of students and larger premises were sought. The building was demolished when Salviati built the new Roman College, since he wanted to enlarge the square for the Roman College.
This remained the site of the Roman College until the takeover of its buildings by the Italian government in Ignatius of Loyola had died on 31 July and was succeeded by Fr. James P. Laynez , an original companion of Ignatius and a papal theologian during the three periods of the Council of Trent. The Jesuits used the existing block of buildings, awaiting a benefactor to build a college building for their burgeoning student population on their more than ample land.
That benefactor came in the person of Pope Gregory XIII who took a liking to the nascent institution and in assigned larger annuities. Then in with funding from the Pope and his relatives, on 11 January his nephew Cardinal Filippo Boncompagni laid the foundation stone for the new college building, designed by Florentine architect Bartolomeo Ammannati.
Classes began on 28 October Later on, in memory of its benefactor, the Roman College took the name of Gregorian University. For a chapel, the Annunziata begun by the Poor Clares was completed by the Jesuits. It was built in and decorated in with a fresco by Federico Zuccari in the apse.
But by this proved too small for a student population that exceeded After the canonization of St. Ignatius of Loyola in , Cardinal Ludovico Ludovisi , nephew of Pope Gregory XV , financed the construction of much larger church named for the new saint. The old church and a part of a classroom wing of the Roman College were removed to make room for the church of St. It was designed by the Jesuit Orazio Grassi and solemnly consecrated in The flat ceiling and missing dome were frescoed by painter Jesuit Brother Andrea Pozzo , in a style that creates the illusion of depth photo on right.
The Roman College became the center of academia in its time. It hosted many learned debates including those between Galileo Galilei and Paolo Segneri , master of oratory. The German Jesuit scholar Athanasius Kircher , "Master of a Hundred Arts", was a professor at the college and left on the premises a museum filled with his works.
The Jesuits were particularly drawn to astronomy and had a large observatory tower and scientific laboratories constructed on the roof of the annexed church, in The building of the College consists of two large, colonnaded courtyards and large classrooms. In , with the suppression of the Society of Jesus, the Jesuits entrusted the college to the secular clergy.
It was seriously damaged during the French occupation of Rome. Ignatius to the Society of Jesus. Leo himself was present for the inauguration of the new academic year on 2 November Giovanni Perrone was among the distinguished faculty of theology of that time. With the reopening of the Roman College the famous astronomical observatory was restored and enlarged.
The Jesuits experienced a setback during the Roman Republic , when on 29 March they were expelled and their building became a Roman seminary. The following year the building was occupied and heavily damaged by the revolutionaries who burned a wing of the college.
On 7 August the French arrived to liberate Rome. On 3 March the Roman seminary was returned and classes resumed. Twenty years later on 20 September , with the occupation troops of Savoy in Rome, the college was used as a barracks for sharpshooters; classrooms were used for a technical school and high school. On 6 November the College was closed and the symbol of the Society of Jesus was chiseled from the doors; until then both the Jacobins and Mazzini had spared it.
It remained open only as a school of philosophy and theology for the Roman clergy. On 17 January the libraries, astronomical observatory, scientific laboratory, and the Kircher Museum were taken over by the new government. With the extension of the rule of Savoy to the city of Rome, the Jesuits were finally removed. Pius IX protested against this usurpation with the encyclical Etsi fine luctuosa of 21 November The community of Jesuit professors found hospitality at the Palazzo Borromeo-Gabrielli as guests of the German College moved elsewhere in , now home to students of the Jesuit Bellarmine College.
The Roman College would live on only through its philosophy and theology faculties, which had departed the premises in Na Zaobljube je napravil avgusta General of the Society of Jesus b. He belonged to one of the most ancient, and illustrious families of Tuscany. He had two brothers, one of whom subsequently became canon of the. Sent when very young to Prato to pursue, his studies under the direction of the Society of Jesus in the celebrated Cicognini college, he entered the society when he was scarcely fifteen, 16 Dec.
Andrea at Rome. Having made the usual course of philosophical and theological studies and twice defended with rare success public theses in these subjects, he was successively charged with teaching belles lettres and philosophy it Siena, and philosophy and theology at the Roman College, from which he was promoted to the foremost office of his order.
Meanwhile he was admitted to the profession of the four vows, 15 Aug. About his edifying and regular life, his discretion, gentleness, and simplicity caused him to be appointed to the important office of spiritual father, the duties of which he discharged to the satisfaction of all. In Father Luigi Centurione, who appreciated his eminent qualities, chose him as secretary of the society.
Finally in the Nineteenth Congregation he was elected general by unanimous vote, 21 May, It was at the most stormy and distressed period of its existence that the senate of the society placed its government and its destinies in the, hand of a man deeply virtuous and endowed with rare merit, but, who was inexperienced in the art of governing and who had always lived apart from the world and diplomatic intrigues. The historiographer Julius Cordara, who lived near Ricci and seems to have known him intimately, deplored this choice: "Eundem tot, inter iactationes ac fluctus cum aliquid praeter morem audendum et malis inusitatis inusitata remedia adhibenda videbantur, propter ipsam nature placiditatem et nulla unquam causa incalescentem animum, minus aptum arbitrabar" On account of his placid nature and too even temper, I regarded him as little suited for a time when disturbance and storm seem to require extraordinary application of unusual remedies to unusual evils.
Denkwurdigkeiten der Jesuiten, p. On the other hand it must be admitted that the new general did not have much leeway. In his first interview with Clement XIII, who had assumed the tiara 6 July, , and always showed himself deeply attached to the Jesuits, the pope counselled him: "Silentium, patientiam et preces; cetera sibi curae fore" Cordara, op. The seven encyclical letters which he addressed to them in the fifteen years of his generalship all breathe the sweetest and tenderest piety and zeal for their religious perfection.
Epistolae praepositorum generalium S. This pious and profoundly upright man was nevertheless not wanting on occasion in courage and firmness. When it was suggested to save the French provinces of his order by giving them a superior entirely independent of the general of Rome he refused thus to transgress the.
Cordara, op. When, to the mass of pamphlets aimed against the Jesuits, the Portuguese episcopate brought the reinforcement of pastoral letters, a number of bishops wrote to the pope letters which were very eulogistic of the Society of Jesus and its Institute, and Clement XIII hastened to send a copy to Father Ricci. It was a brilliant apologia for the order Cordara and many of his brethren considered it, expedient to publish this correspondence in full with the sole title: "ludicium Ecclesiae, universae, de statu praesenti Societatis Iesu" op.
Timoni, who fancied that no one would dare any thing against the Jesuits of Portugal, was of a contrary opinion, and the general was won over to his way of thinking. Disaster followed disaster, and Ricci experienced the most serious material difficulties in assisting the members who were expelled from every country. At his instance, and perhaps even with his collaboration, Clement XIII, solicitous for the fate of the Society, published 7 January, , the Bull "Apostolicam pascendi", which was a cogent defence of the Institute and its members Masson, "Le cardinal de, Bernis depuis son ministere" But even the pontiff's intervention could not stay the devastating torrent.
His successor, the conventual Ganganelli, little resembled him. Whatever may have been his sympathies for the order prior to his elevation to the sovereign pontificate, and his indebtedness to Ricci, who had used his powerful influence to secure for him the cardinal's hat, it is indisputable that once he became pope he assumed at least in appearance a hostile attitude. Despite the exactions and outrageous injustices which the Jesuit houses had to undergo even at Rome, the general did not give up hope of a speedy deliverance, as is testified by the letter he wrote to Cordara the day after the feast of St.
Ignatius, Cordara, loc. Although the Brief of abolition had been signed by the pope ten days previously, Father Ricci was suddenly notified on the evening of 16 August. The next day he was assigned the English College as residence, until 23 Sept.
The surveillance was so severe that he did not learn of the death of his secretary Cornolli, imprisoned with him and in his vicinity, until six months after the event. To satisfy the hatred of his enemies his trial and that of his companions was hastened, but the judge ended by recognizing "nunquam objectos sibi reos his innocentiores; Riccium etiam ut hominem vere sanctum dilaudabat" Cordara, op. Justice required that the ex-general be at once set at liberty, but nothing was done, apparently through fear lest the scattered Jesuits should gather about their old head, to reconstruct their society at the centre of Catholicism.
But while his claims were being considered by the circle of the Sovereign Pontiff, death came to summon the venerable old man to the tribunal of the supreme Judge. Five days previously, when about to receive Holy Viaticum, he made this double protest: 1 "I declare and protest that the suppressed Society of Jesus has not given any cause for its suppression; this I declare and protest with all that moral certainty that a superior well informed of his order can have.
I make this second protest only because it is necessary for the reputation of the suppressed Society of Jesus, of which I was the general. To do honour to his memory the pope caused the celebration of elaborate funeral services in the church of St.
John of the Florentines near the Castle of Sant' Angelo. As is customary with prelates, the body was placed on a bed of state. It was carried in the evening to the Church of the Gesu where it was buried in the vault reserved for the burial of his predecessors in the government of the order.
These memoirs carry much weight, inasmuch as Cordara speaks with severity of his former brothers in arms, and of the Society of Jesus. Theiner 2nd ed. Van Ortroy, F. Lorenzo Ricci. Van Ortroy, Francis. February 1, Remy Lafort, D. Zakrament krsta je prejel 2. Janez je Klemen XIV. Tokrat je Wolfgang pokazal neverjeten podvig glasbenega spomina. To omejevanje je nadaljeval tudi Benedikt XIV. Omahljivega Benedikta XIV.
Tako je kmalu po zatrtju jezuitov dolgoletna setev "razsvetljenih" filozofov enciklopedistov dozorela v klas, ki se je imenoval Francoska revolucija Dieses ist die wahre Ursache des Hasses, den man gegen diese Gesellschaft hegte. Sredi Dne Noto il caso di S. Alfonso de Liguori del 21 settembre durante il quale il Santo sarebbe stato contemporaneamente ad Arienzo e a Roma ad assistere la morte di Papa Clemente XIV avvenuta il 22 settembre Enciclopedia di metapsichica, di parapsicologia e di spiritismo.
Bompiani Editore. Njegovo grobnico v slogu neoklasicizma je zasnoval in izklesal Antonio Canova in sicer v omenjeni Baziliki Svetih apostolov. Malahijeva prerokba pravi o Klemenu XIV. Klemenu XIV. Klement XIV. Clement XIV elevated sixteen new cardinals into the cardinalate in twelve consistories including Giovanni Angelo Braschi ,  who succeeded him.
The pope held no canonizations in his pontificate but he beatified a number of individuals. Gallicanism and Jansenism, Febronianism and Rationalism were up in rebellion against the authority of the Roman pontiff; the rulers of France, Spain, Naples, Portugal, Parma were on the side of the sectarians who flattered their dynastic prejudices and, at least in appearance, worked for the strengthening of the temporal power against the spiritual.
The new pope would have to face a coalition of moral and political forces which Clement XIII had indeed manfully resisted, but failed to put down, or even materially to check. The great question between Rome and the Bourbon princes was the suppression of the Society of Jesus. In France, Spain, and Portugal the suppression had taken place de facto; the accession of a new pope was made the occasion for insisting on the abolition of the order root and branch, de facto and de jure, in Europe and all over the world.
The conclave assembled 15 February, Rarely, if ever, has a conclave been the victim of such overweening interference, base intrigues, and unwarranted pressure. The Sacred college, consisting of forty-seven cardinals, was divided into Court cardinals and Zelanti. The latter, favourable to the Jesuits and opposed to the encroaching secular, were in a majority. The immediate object of the intriguers was to gain over a sufficient number of Zelanti.
The cardinal, however, refused. In a memorandum to Choiseul, dated 12 April, , he says: "To require from the future pope a promise made in writing or before witnesses, to destroy the Jesuits, would be a flagrant violation of the canon law and therefore a blot on the honour of the crowns.
Threats were now resorted to; Bernis hinted at a blockade of Rome and popular insurrections to overcome the resistance of the Zelanti. France and Spain, in virtue of their right of veto, excluded twenty-three of the forty-seven cardinals; nine or ten more, on account of their age or for some other reason, were not papabili; only four or five remained eligible.
Well might the Sacred College, as Bernis feared it would, protest against violence and separate on the plea of not being free to elect a suitable candidate. He wished to intimidate the cardinals. The ambassadors threatened to leave Rome unless the conclave surrendered to their dictation. Solis insisted on a written promise to suppress the Jesuits being given by the future pope, but Bernis was not to be gained over to such a breach of the law.
Solis, therefore, supported in the conclave by Cardinal Malvazzi and outside by the ambassadors of France and Spain, took the matter into his own hands. He began by sounding Cardinal Ganganelli as to his willingness to give the promise required by the Bourbon princes as an indispensable condition for election.
This cardinal was the only friar in the Sacred College. Of humble birth his father had been a surgeon at Sant' Arcangelo , he had received his education from the Jesuits of Rimini and the Piarists of Urbino, and, in , at the age of nineteen, had entered the Order of Friars Minor of St. Francis and changed his baptismal name Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio for that of Lorenzo. During the conclave he endeavoured to please both the Zelanti and the Court party without committing himself to either.
At any rate he signed a paper which satisfied Solis. The original paper is, however, nowhere to be found, but its existence seems established by subsequent events, and also by the testimony of Bernis in letters to Choiseul 28 July, and 20 November, Bernis, anxious to have his share in the victory of the sovereigns, urged the election.
On 18 May, , Ganganelli was elected by forty-six votes out of forty-seven, the forty-seventh being his own which he had given to Cardinal Rezzonico, a nephew of Clement XIII. He took the name of Clement XIV. The new pope's first Encyclical clearly defined his policy: to keep the peace with Catholic princes in order to secure their support in the war against irreligion.
His predecessor had left him a legacy of broils with nearly every Catholic power in Europe. Clement hastened to settle as many as he could by concessions and conciliatory measures. Without revoking the constitution of Clement XIII against the young Duke of Parma's inroads on the rights of the Church, he refrained from urging its execution, and graciously granted him a dispensation to marry his cousin, the Archduchess Amelia, daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria.
The King of Spain, soothed by these concessions, withdrew the uncanonical edict which, a year before, he had issued as a counterblast to the pope's proceedings against the infant Duke of Parma, the king's nephew; he also re-established the nuncio's tribunal and condemned some writings against Rome. Portugal had been severed from Rome since ; Clement XIV began his attempt at reconciliation by elevating to the Sacred College Paulo de Carvalho, brother of the famous minister Pombal; active negotiations terminated in the revocation, by King Joseph I, of the ordinances of , the origin and cause of the rupture between Portugal and the Holy See.
A grievance common to Catholic princes was the yearly publication, on Holy Thursday, of the censures reserved to the pope; Clement abolished this custom in the first Lent of his pontificate. But there remained the ominous question of the Jesuits.
The Bourbon princes, though thankful for smaller concessions, would not rest till they had obtained the great object of their machinations, the total suppression of the Society. Although persecuted in France, Spain, Sicily, and Portugal, the Jesuits had still many powerful protectors: the rulers, as well as the public conscience, protected them and their numerous establishments in the ecclesiastical electorates of Germany, in the Palatinate, Bavaria, Silesia, Poland, Switzerland, and the many countries subject to the sceptre of Maria Theresa, not to mention the States of the Church and the foreign missions.
The Bourbon princes were moved in their persecution by the spirit of the times, represented in Latin countries by French irreligious philosophism, by Jansenism, Gallicanism, and Erastianism; probably also by the natural desire to receive the papal sanction for their unjust proceedings against the order, for which they stood accused at the bar of the Catholic conscience. Advertisement - Continue Reading Below An ever-recurring and almost solitary grievance against the Society was that the Fathers disturbed the peace wherever they were firmly established.
Cardinal de Bernis, now French ambassador in Rome, was instructed by Choiseul to follow the lead of Spain in the renewed campaign against the Jesuits. On the 22nd of July, , he presented to the pope a memorandum in the name of the three ministers of the Bourbon kings, "The three monarchs", it ran, "still believe the destruction of the Jesuits to be useful and necessary; they have already made their request to Your Holiness, and they renew it this day.
This latter, bent on the immediate suppression of the order, obtained from Clement XIV, under the strong pressure of Azpuru, the written promise "to submit to His Majesty a scheme for the absolute extinction of the Society" 30 November, To prove his sincerity the pope now commenced open hostilities against the Jesuits.
He refused to see their general, Father Ricci, and gradually removed from his entourage their best friends; his only confidants were two friars of his own order, Buontempo and Francesco; no princes or cardinals surrounded his throne. The Roman people, dissatisfied with this state of things and reduced to starvation by maladministration, openly showed their discontent, but Clement, bound by his promises and caught in the meshes of Bourbon diplomacy, was unable to retrace his steps.
The college and seminary of Frascati were taken from the Jesuits and handed over to the bishop of the town, the Cardinal of York. Their Lenten catechisms were prohibited for A congregation of cardinals hostile to the order visited the Roman College and had the Fathers expelled; the novitiate and the German College were also attacked. The German College won its cause, but the sentence was never executed. The novices and students were sent back to their families.
Nowhere did the Jesuits offer any resistance; they knew that their efforts were futile. Father Garnier wrote: "You ask me why the Jesuits offer no defence: they can do nothing here. All approaches, direct and indirect, are completely closed, walled up with double walls. Not the most insignificant memorandum can find its way in. There is no one who would undertake to hand it in" 19th Jan.
At once he made an onslaught on the perplexed pope. He openly threatened him with a schism in Spain and probably in the other Bourbon states, such as had existed in Portugal from to On the other hand, he promised the restitution of Avignon and Benevento, still held by France and Naples. Whilst Clement's anger was roused by this latter simoniacal proposal, his good, but feeble, heart could not overcome the fear of a widespread schism. He now ransacked the archives of Rome and Spain to supply Clement with facts justifying the promised suppression.
Meanwhile Clement continued to harass the Jesuits of his own dominions, perhaps with a view to preparing the Catholic world for the Brief of suppression, or perhaps hoping by his severity to soothe the anger of Charles III and to stave off the abolition of the whole order. But Charles Emmanuel died, and Maria Theresa, giving way to the importunate prayers of her son Joseph II and her daughter the Queen of Naples, ceased to plead for the maintenance of the Society.
It was signed 8 June, ; at the same time a congregation of cardinals was appointed to administer the property of the suppressed order. Ignatius; the pope, hearing them, remarked: "They are not ringing for the saints but for the dead".
The Brief of suppression, signed on 8 June, bears the date 21 July, Ricci never saw the end of it. He died in prison, to his last moment protesting his innocence and that of his order. His companions were set free under Pius VI, their judges having found them "not guilty".
The Brief, "Dominus ac Redemptor" opens with the statement that it is the pope's office to secure in the world the unity of mind in the bonds of peace. He must therefore be prepared, for the sake of charity, to uproot and destroy the things most dear to him, whatever pains and bitterness their loss may entail. Often the popes, his predecessors, have made use of their supreme authority for reforming, and even dissolving, religious orders which had become harmful and disturbed the peace of the nations rather than promoted it.
Numerous examples are quoted, then the Brief continues: "Our predecessors, in virtue of the plenitude of power which is theirs as Vicars of Christ, have suppressed such orders without allowing them to state their claims or to refute the grave accusations brought against them, or to impugn the motives of the pope. Having enumerated the principal favours granted it by former popes, he remarks that "the very tenor and terms of the said Apostolic constitutions show that the Society from its earliest days bore the germs of dissensions and jealousies which tore its own members asunder, led them to rise against other religious orders, against the secular clergy and the universities, nay even against the sovereigns who had received them in their states".
Clement XIII had hoped to silence their enemies by renewing the approbation of their Institute, "but the Holy See derived no consolation, the Society no help, Christianity no advantage from the Apostolic letters of Clement XIII, of blessed memory, letters which were wrung from him rather than freely given". At the end of this pope's reign "the outcry and the complaints against the Society increasing day by day, the very princes whose piety and hereditary benevolence towards it are favourably known of all nations — our beloved Sons in Jesus Christ the Kings of France, Spain, Portugal, and the two Sicilies — were forced to expel from their kingdoms, states and provinces, all the religious of this Order, well knowing that this extreme measure was the only remedy to such great evils.
After long and mature consideration the pope, "compelled by his office, which imposes on him the obligation to procure, maintain, and consolidate with all his power the peace and tranquillity of the Christian people — persuaded, moreover, that the Society of Jesus is no longer able to produce the abundant fruit and the great good for which it was instituted — and considering that, as long as this order subsists, it is impossible for the Church to enjoy free and solid peace", resolves to "suppress and abolish" the Society, "to annul and abrogate all and each of its offices, functions, and administrations".
The authority of the superiors was transferred to the bishops; minute provisions were made for the maintenance and the employment of the members of the order. The Brief concludes with a prohibition to suspend or impede its execution, to make it the occasion of insulting or attacking anyone, least of all the former Jesuits; finally it exhorts the faithful to live in peace with all men and to love one another. The one and only motive for the suppression of the Society set forth in this Brief is to restore the peace of the Church by removing one of the contending parties from the battlefield.
No blame is laid by the pope on the rules of the order, or the personal conduct of its members, or the orthodoxy of their teaching. Moreover, Father Sydney Smith, S. If Clement XIV hoped to stop the storm of unbelief raging against the Bark of Peter by throwing its best oarsmen overboard, he was sorely mistaken.
But is unlikely that he entertained such a fallacy. He loved the Jesuits, who had been his first teachers, his trusty advisers, the best defenders of the Church over which he ruled. No personal animosity guided his action; the Jesuits themselves, in agreement with all serious historians, attribute their suppression to Clement's weakness of character, unskilled diplomacy, and that kind of goodness of heart which is more bent on doing what is pleasing than what is right. He was not built to hold his head above the tempest; his hesitations and his struggles were of no avail against the enemies of the order, and his friends found no better excuse for him than that of St.
Alphonsus: What could the poor pope do when all the Courts insisted on the suppression? The Jesuit Cordara expresses the same mind: "I think we should not condemn the pontiff who, after so many hesitations, has judged it his duty to suppress the Society of Jesus. I love my order as much as any man, yet, had I been in the pope's place I should probably have acted as he did. The Xompany, founded and maintained for the good of the Church, perished for the same good; it could not have ended more gloriously.
Advertisement - Continue Reading Below It should be noted that the Brief was not promulgated in the form customary for papal Constitutions intended as laws of the Church. It was not a Bull, but a Brief, i. Peter's or in the Campo di Fiore; it was not even communicated in legal form to the Jesuits in Rome; the general and his assistants alone received the notification of their suppression. In France it was not published, the Gallican Church, and especially Beaumont, Archbishop of Paris, resolutely opposing it as being the pope's personal deed, not supported by the whole Church and therefore not binding on the Church of France.
The King of Spain thought the Brief too lenient, for it condemned neither the doctrine, nor the morals, nor the discipline of his victims. The court of Naples forbade its publication under pain of death. Poland resisted a while; the Swiss cantons of Lucerne, Fribourg, and Solothurn never allowed the Fathers to give up their colleges.
Whatever may have been their motives, whether it was to spite the pope and the Bourbon Courts or to please their Catholic subjects and preserve for them the services of the best educators, their intervention kept the order alive until its complete restoration in Frederick persevered in his opposition only for a few years; in the Brief was promulgated in his dominions.
The Jesuits retained possession of all their colleges and of the University of Breslau until and , but they ranked as secular priests and admitted no more novices. But Catherine II resisted to the end. By her order the bishops of White Russia ignored the Brief of suppression and commanded the Jesuits to continue to live in communities and to go on with their usual work. Clement XIV seems to have approved of their conduct. The empress, in order to set at rest the scruples of the Fathers, engaged in several negotiations with the pope and had her will.
In France, too, the persecuted Jesuits were not altogether without friends. Madame Louise de France, daughter of Louis XV, who had entered the Carmelite Order and was, with her sisters, the leader of a band of pious women at the court of her royal father, had worked out a scheme for re-establishing the Jesuits in six provinces under the authority of the bishops.
Bernis, however, defeated their good intentions. He obtained from the pope a new Brief, addressed to himself and requesting him to see that the French bishops conformed, each in his diocese, to the Brief "Dominus ac Redemptor". After the death of Clement XIV it was rumoured that he had retracted the Brief of abolition by a letter of 29 June, That letter, it was said, had been entrusted to his confessor to be given to the next pope.
It was published for the first time in , at Zurich, in P. Wolf's "Allgemeine Geschichte der Jesuiten". The first and almost the only advantage the pope reaped from his policy of concessions was the restoration to the Holy See of Avignon and Benevento. The restitution, following so closely on the suppression of the Jesuits, seemed the price paid for it, although, to save appearances, the duke interceded with the two kings in favour of the pope, and Clement, in the consistory of 17 January, , took occasion from it to load the Bourbon princes with praises they little deserved.
In France a royal commission for the reformation of the religious orders had been at work for several years, notwithstanding the energetic protests of Clement XIII; without the pope's consent it had abolished in the congregations of Grandmont and of the exempt Benedictines; it had threatened the Premonstratensians, the Trinitarians, and the Minims with the same fate.
The pope protested, through his nuncio to Paris, against such abuses of the secular power, but in vain. The Celestines and the Camaldolese were secularized that same year, The only concessions Louis XV deigned to make was to submit to Clement the general edict for the reformation of the French religious before its publication.
This was in The pope succeeded in obtaining its modification in several points. In Genoa had ceded the Island of Corsica to France. At once a conflict arose as to the introduction of "Gallican usages". The pope sent a visitor Apostolic to the island and had the gratification of preventing the adoption of usages in opposition to the Roman practice.
Louis XV, however, revenged himself by absolutely refusing to acknowledge the pope's suzerainty over Corsica. Louis XV died in , and one is rather surprised at the eulogy which Clement XIV pronounced in a consistory on "the king's deep love for the Church, and his admirable zeal for the defence of the Catholic religion".
He also hoped that the penitent death of the prince had secured his salvation. It may be surmised that he was prompted by a desire to please the king's youngest daughter, Madame Louise de France, Prioress of the Carmelites of Saint-Denis, for whom he had always shown a great affection, attested by numerous favours granted to herself and to her convent. Frederick, by preserving the Jesuits in his dominions, rendered the Church a good, though perhaps unintended, service. He also authorized the erection of a Catholic church in Berlin; the pope sent a generous contribution and ordered collections for the same purpose to be made in Belgium, the Rhineland, and Austria.
But the doctrines of Febronius were prevalent at her court, and more than once she came into conflict with the pope. She refused to suppress a new edition of Febronius, as Clement XIV requested; she lent a willing ear to the "Grievances of the German nation", a scheme of reforms in the Church making it more dependent on the prince than on the pope; she legislated for the religious orders of her dominions without consulting Rome.
She maintained her edict on the religious against all the pope's remonstrances, but withdrew her protection from the authors of the "Grievances", the Electors of Cologne, Mainz, and Trier. She also obtained from Clement in the institution of a Ruthenian bishop for the Ruthenian Catholics of Hungary.
In other parts of Germany the pope had to face similar difficulties. The number and wealth of the religious houses, in some instances their uselessness, and occasionally their disorders, tempted the princes to lay violent and rapacious hands on them. Numerous houses were to be suppressed in Bavaria for the endowment of the new University of Ebersberg, in the Palatinate the reception of new religious was to be stopped; Clement opposed both measures with success. The king also desired him to define the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, but France blocked the way.
Portugal, whilst it made a certain outward show of goodwill towards Rome, continued to interfere in ecclesiastical affairs and to impose on colleges and seminaries an education more in accord with French philosophism than with the spirit of the Church. At Naples the minister Tanucci hindered the recruitment of religious orders; episcopal acts required the royal placet; the anti- religious press enjoyed high protection. Whilst, politically, Poland was preparing its own ruin, the Piarists openly taught the worst philosophism in their schools and refused to have their houses visited by the papal nuncio at Warsaw.
King Stanislaus planned the extinction of the religious orders and favoured the Freemasons. The pope was powerless; the few concessions he obtained from Catherine II for the Catholics of her new province were set at naught by that headstrong woman as soon as it suited her politics. Of her own authority she created for the annexed Catholic Ruthenians a new diocese Mohileff administered by a bishop Siestrencewicz of schismatic temper. Clement XIV had the satisfaction of seeing his nuncio, Caprara, favourably received at the Court of England, and of initiating measures for the emancipation of English Catholics.
This turn in the relations between Rome and England was due to the granting of royal honours to the king's brother when he visited Rome in ; the same honours being refused to the Pretender. In Rome the pope found little favour with either the Roman patriciate or the Sacred College; none of the many measures he took for the betterment of his people could atone, in their eyes, for his subserviency to the Bourbon Courts and for the suppression of the Jesuits.
The last months of his life were embittered by the consciousness of his failures; at times he seemed crushed under the weight of sorrow. On the 10th of September, , he took to his bed, received Extreme Unction on the 21st and died piously on the 22nd of the same month. Many witnesses in the process of canonization of St. Alphonsus of Liguori attested that the saint had been miraculously present at the death-bed of Clement XIV to console and fortify him in his last hour.
Notwithstanding the doctors' certificate, the "Spanish party" and historical romancers attributed death to poison administered by the Jesuits. Wilhelm, J. Pope Clement XIV. Wilhelm, Joseph. Tenne corrispondenza con Caterina di Russia e con lo stesso Voltaire; fu stimato anche dai protestanti specie da quelli d'inghilterra. Prospero Lambertini era nato a Bologna il 31 maggio , allievo a Roma dei Padri Somaschi, aveva poi studiato teologia e diritto.
Divenuto chierico, si era imposto come avvocato concistoriale, facendo tirocinio nello studio del giudice di Sacra Rota, mons. Alessandro Caprara. Sotto il suo pontificato si raggiunse un compromesso sulla secolare questione del patriarcato di Aquileia, che nel venne abolito e al suo posto furono costituiti gli arcivescovadi di Udine e di Gorizia. Il figlio del ministro inglese lord. Fra i suoi meriti, ci fu la diffusione con s. Paolo della Croce e i Redentoristi di s. A Roma fece costruire la chiesa di S.
Il suo illuminato pontificato, intessuto di comprensione e rispetto per tutti gli uomini, qualunque fosse il loro pensiero o fede religiosa, non fu sempre compreso ed apprezzato da molti ecclesiastici contemporanei, che non erano maturi per gli avvenimenti, che nel secolo successivo, avrebbero scosso dalle fondamenta millenarie lo Stato Pontificio e il potere temporale dei papi; cosa che con chiaroveggenza papa Benedetto XIV aveva intuito e cercato di anticipare, almeno nel pensiero della Chiesa del tempo.
Di fede ne possiede quanto basta, manda avanti gli affari della casta e sa pigliare il mondo come viene. Vescovo titolare di Teodosia nel , il Lambertini diviene arcivescovo di Ancona il 20 genn. Cardinale il 30 apr. Leonardo da Porto Maurizio e di s. Paolo della Croce. Determinanti nella genesi dello scritto dovettero essere il richiamo al Tridentino, la fioritura dei sinodi diocesani durante il pontificato di Benedetto XIII e la diretta partecipazione del Lambertini, come canonista, al celebre sinodo romano di papa Orsini del Ancora in ambiente bolognese maturano le altre opere del Lambertini, arricchite in successive edizioni: le Annotazioni sopra le feste di nostro Signore e della beatissima Vergine Messa, anch'esso di carattere liturgico devozionale, con un'appendice critico-agiografica Padova ;in latino, Romae e ;Venetiis , con commento del gesuita E.
In questo scritto il Lambertini riversa un'esperienza ventennale maturata nella Congregazione dei Riti, presentando una "summa" della prassi venutasi formando da Urbano VIII in poi, ma insieme volge lo sguardo a tutta la tradizione ecclesiastica, dalle collezioni degli Atti dei martiri, con relativi problemi di critica storica, all'ufficio e messa dei santi, con i problemi connessi alla riforma del Breviario Romano, che saranno affrontati negli anni di pontificato.
VII, Napoli , capp. XIV, si rinvia alle edizioni complessive: Opera Heiner, Friburgi Br. Al conclave, apertosi il 19 febbr. La sua candidatura si impone quale compromesso, dopo sei mesi di estenuanti trattative e di giochi di forza tra i partiti di Curia il gruppo corsiniano e l'ala di opposizione capeggiata dal camerlengo A.
I primi anni del pontificato lambertiniano sono segnati da uno slancio eccezionale, che indica in B. Ed in questo, soprattutto per gli aspetti diplomatico-politici del suo pontificato, B. Entrato in crisi da tempo il concordato del 29maggio , B. Il 5genn. Alessandro Albani, come protettore della Corona, con il plenipotenziario sardo de Rivera, possono firmare due convenzioni circa i feudi pontifici in Piemonte e la materia beneficiaria.
Intorno alla quale, modificata e ulteriormente estesa dallo stesso B. Per facilitare gli accordi, che nelle ultime tre congregazioni furono discussi alla sua stessa presenza, B. XIV al momento della firma del concordato, amplieranno le competenze del cappellano maggiore. Un particolare concordato con il Portogallo 30 ag.
La nuova convenzione intendeva compensare la Dataria di numerose pensioni ecclesiastiche divenute di patronato regio. In questa occasione B. XIV riconobbe di essersi dovuto piegare ad "esorbitanti concessioni" a Tencin, 25ag. Amplissime concessioni da parte della S. Il concordato clementino del era stato subito posto in discussione da parte spagnola, le cui tendenze regalistiche, fomentate anche da alti ambienti ecclesiastici, e particolarmente dal cardinale Belluga, accompagnandosi alla situazione internazionale nel corso della guerra di successione austriaca, renderanno impossibile ogni intesa sino al L'ultimo concordato benedettino, in ordine di tempo, stipulato con Maria Teresa per la Lombardia 17 dic.
Mentre viene cercando nuove intese con gli Stati italiani ed europei, lo slancio iniziale del pontificato lambertiniano si volge ai settori della vita religiosa ed ecclesiastica. Una delle prime encicliche benedettine, la Ubi primum del 3 dic. Per la scelta di elementi idonei all'episcopato B.
XIV, che riflettono gli orientamenti dell'episcopato francese sul problema del Breviario, e il personale impegno del pontefice. Ma l'interesse venutosi a creare concorre allo sviluppo degli studi agiografici e di storia ecclesiastica e alla diffusione del clima muratoriano soprattutto durante il primo decennio del pontificato benedettino. Suggestioni delle "moderate" aspirazioni riformatrici muratoriane sono ben avvertibili infatti in altre disposizioni di B.
Le nuove esigenze devozionali si affiancano in questi anni a diverse riforme liturgiche, che denotano, tra l'altro, la particolare attenzione volta da B. XIV alle Chiese orientali: la revisione del Martirologio, conclusa nel ; la revisione dell'antico messale glagolitico per i paesi slavi, compiuta nel ; l'edizione dell'eucologio greco, cui si lavorava in Roma sin dai tempi di Urbano VIII, prescritto ad uso dei greco-uniti nel A tali orientamenti non corrisponde un analogo, parallelo impulso per gli studi di esegesi biblica, gravati dalle tradizionali proibizioni post-tridentine delle traduzioni della Scrittura nelle lingue nazionali: proibizioni che B.
Nel settore missionario, nel , con un breve diretto ai vescovi portoghesi dell'America meridionale, B. XIV prende posizione a favore dei diritti umani degli Indios. Ma provvedimenti decisivi riguardano le missioni in Cina e in India. Con la bolla Ex quo 11 luglio B. XIV non fece che confermare, sia pure con spiccata venatura rigorista, un atteggiamento abbastanza costante seguito sino ad allora da Roma. La bolla Omnium sollicitudinum 12 sett. Broedersen e soprattutto da quella dell'erudito veronese S.
Maffei, Dell'impiego del denaro , di ispirazione "latitudinaria", contro le quali si erano accese le reazioni gianseniste e rigoriste, queste rappresentate in Italia dal domenicano Concina e dai concittadini dei Maffei, i fratelli Ballerini, in effetti una decisione papale in merito fu sollecitata dallo stesso Maffei.
Lo slancio iniziale va attenuandosi ora che si procede nel primo decennio di pontificato. La guerra di successione austriaca, i problemi della politica internazionale e la stessa sorte del pur neutrale Stato pontificio, percorso dalle armate austriache e spagnole in lotta, distolgono o almeno affievoliscono l'attenzione di B. XIV dall'impegno pastorale e dalle riforme ecclesiastiche e disciplinari per volgerla agli inquieti orizzonti europei.
XIV, nell'incertezza degli eventi e nel desiderio di una rapida composizione del conflitto, finisce con l'adeguarsi, anche troppo sollecitamente, a nuove situazioni di fatto, operando un revirement con il riconoscimento dell'elezione imperiale di Carlo Alberto di Baviera Carlo VII , il 28 febbr.
Le invocazioni di B. Sbloccata improvvisamente la difficile situazione dalla morte di Carlo 20 genn. Tuttavia B. XIV deve piegarsi al riconoscimento di Francesco Stefano nell'allocuzione concistoriale del 15 dic. I rapporti con Vienna vengono lentamente normalizzandosi. XIV, dopo lunghe trattative, provvede a sopprimere il millenario patriarcato di Aquileia e a creare i due arcivescovadi di Gorizia e di Udine, per ovviare alla difficile situazione pastorale del territorio, diviso tra la giurisdizione austriaca e quella della Repubblica di Venezia.
XIV e gli Asburgo Lorena. Nel viene risolta in Toscana la crisi aperta nel con il processo dell'Inquisizione contro il poeta T. Crudeli e perpetuata dalla politica della Reggenza. Con una patente per gli affari ecclesiastici 15genn. XIV respinge risolutamente, il primo nel fondato timore che si venga a creare una Chiesa nazionale tedesca sottoposta al sovrano di Prussia, il secondo denunciando il radicale sovvertimento dello statusquo che Federico aveva promesso di rispettare per i diritti della Chiesa cattolica in Slesia preliminari di Breslavia tra Austria e Prussia, II luglio XIV di convalidare la nomina del canonico F.
Una base di trattative si configura dopo il , quando lo Schaffgotsch, succeduto allo Sinzendorf, invia a Roma un plenipotenziario per sollecitare la conferma papale. La diplomazia pontificia e gli ambienti di Curia abbinano facilmente la questione della conferma con quella riguardante, nel loro insieme, i rapporti con la politica prussiana.
Le discussioni sul secondo ordine di problemi sono destinate, invece. Non mancheranno in seguito contrasti su quei punti su cui inevitabilmente dovevano collidere le esigenze del dispotismo illuminato federiciano e la flessibile resistenza di B. XIV, soprattutto in materia testamentaria, riguardo a lasciti e legati pii, o nel settore delle doti monastiche.
Nei quali momenti B. XIV, e la risposta del re di Prussia, che - quale ne sia il velato intento "politico" - suona elogio altissimo di B. Federico ad Algarotti, 20 febbr. Provvedimenti parziali e discontinui erano stati adottati durante il periodo di guerra, per limitare le spese dell'amministrazione, incrementare le entrate e ridurre il deficit perpetuato dall'ineliminabile peso del debito pubblico cresciuto paurosamente sotto Clemente XII.
XIV, all'indomani della pace di Aquisgrana. Anche qui egli ravviva e stimola una tradizione, ed anche qui, per B. XIV, poco esperto in materia, saranno da analizzare i rapporti con consiglieri ed esperti, dall'Aldruvandi all'Argenvilliers al Valenti Gonzaga - alla cui ispirazione risalirebbero i tentativi per intaccare la rete dei pedaggi, dei monopoli e dei privilegi locali o professionali, e il favore di B.
XIV per lo sviluppo dei traffici di Ancona e Civitavecchia - al banchiere e finanziere romano Belloni, amministratore generale delle dogane durante il pontificato benedettino. Le disposizioni di papa B. Seguiranno 12 luglio e 3 sett. In questa stessa direzione si pone l'abolizione della privativa dei tabacchi , vigente sin dall'epoca di Alessandro VII.
XIV Bullae Merlini, delegato del pontefice 5 apr. La tramontante erudizione maurino-muratoriana, che si esplica nelle Accademie fondate da B. XIV, dei concili, della storia ecclesiastica, della liturgia e dei riti, si accompagna alla reviviscenza archeologica, romana, dove l'antiquaria classicistica incomincia.
Venuti, e in cui appaiono le Magnificenze di Roma di G. XIV che ha inizio la descrizione dei manoscritti vaticarti tra il appaiono tre volumi del catalogo dei manoscritti orientali curati dall'Assemani , ripresa solo al tempo di Leone XIII. Bottari l'anno successivo e resa possibile dalle fortunate campagne di scavi condotte nelle catacombe romane tra il Restauri di antichi edifici, come il Colosseo, e di edifici sacri, come le basiliche di S. Maria Maggiore e di S.
Maria degli Angeli, il Pantheon, ecc.
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