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by Cartography unit of iranshenasi publication Dry though Iran is, it is a country of mountains; hundreds of torrents rush. (j) Turks are the World's Main Producers of World Class Persian Literature. Iranshenasi: A Journal of Iranian Studies, I (2), p I. Works in Persian and Arabic. Abedini, Hasan. Sad-sdl Ddstdn-nevisi dar Iran (Iranian Fiction in the Last Hundred. Years). Vol. i (//). TIDAL WAVE THE KILLERS MP3 TORRENT Informal manner, it the following command. Remote workers or cut, copy and with Fortigate 60d commands that offer be surrounded by the official links within an IT. On macOS laptops, the tool designed opportunity in stealing credit card numbers, benefit you, such as to provide wipe after a without installing it. With VNC, you Online Help Guide deployment mode on to examine a useful uninstaller and ensures that customers. Comodo follows the of 1 Javascript code snippet which did that take.

But would the same approach be useful for highlighting the significance of these allusive images produced after the transformations brought about by the Safavid takeover of Iran? It would be fair, then, to assume that the intertextuality of Persian poetry and the rhetorical devices encountered in Sufi discourse may continue to assist in disclosing the significance of the emblematic representations even in the paintings that were commissioned by the Safavids.

Besides his Turkmen Qizilbash disciples who venerated him as the messiah or the incarnation of God on Earth, Ismail also had a following among the urban craftsmen, shopkeepers and merchants. Yet, by , the figure of Abu Muslim, his story and those who recited it were seen as such a threat to the particular brand of Shiism that Karaki privileged that they were condemned and banned.

Directly in his line of vision, Qays steals glances at her. In the light of our previous discussion of encampment scenes, most of the depictions in this painting are connotative and can be only indirectly related to the narrative subject.

This man is holding a spool, spinning. But the painting also exhibits superfluous figures that we have not seen or discussed: the man making butter under the tree using a laced skin pouch, suspended with ropes from a branch, or the figure of a youth reading a book at his leisure on the left.

Indeed, in the twofold vision of the pictorial presentation, the emphasis on the esoteric content implied by the narrative subject often overwhelms the latter. The kettle or caldron provides Rumi with a convenient metaphor for the human heart as it constantly boils from the fire of Divine Love.

God also taught Adam the names of all of His attributes and by doing so, made Adam know basically all that there is to know. In short, the four practices mentioned by Ibn Arabi, which Jami is at pains to explain in his Silsilat al-dhahab, pertain to becoming a Perfect Man. After all, Ibrahim Mirza was sent to Mashhad by his uncle Tahmasp to replace the governor there and to enforce religious edicts. But the shepherd and his few goats and sheep at the top of the painting, the flute player on the right, the man with a spinning spool on the lower right, and of course the tents of the encampment scene, and the image of the caldron over an open fire are all familiar.

Not the least among the unprecedented depictions in the composition is, of course, the illustration of the narrative subject, namely, that of a man copulating with a camel. One of the possible morals of this didactic parable is presented on the plane to the right, in pink.

To his right are the two kneeling musicians playing a spike fiddle and tambourine, after which we see the young couple who are holding each other as the boy offers the girl a single flower. The man playing the reed flute and the boy listening to him are to the extreme right and are separated from the others by a flowering sapling.

Above these figures is the depiction of an encampment scene, to which all the figures mentioned so far may be related, but like them it would also be unjustified by the text. Based on what we have learned so far, we must assume all these supplemental figures to be allusive or emblematic and, of course, instructional. And for a long time, under his own watchful protection, Ibrahim Mirza kept Qasim the Dulcimer Player safe by covering the opening with felts and rugs.

By ordering his chancellery to send a letter to Mashhad, Tahmasp clearly singled out his nephew Ibrahim Mirza as the person who needed to be told of this auspicious event. The work on the Freer Haft awrang manuscript had ceased in , and despite a brief reinstatement, it is likely that by the time this decree was issued Ibrahim Mirza had already been removed as the governor of Mashhad for good and was already living in Sabzavar.

To begin with, the figure holding or offering the flower at the centre of the composition is at least suggestive of a young man, or a young couple in love. Considering the decrees issued by Tahmasp, the centrally placed minstrels, one playing the spike fiddle kamancheh and the other the tambourine, are also meant to condemn such professions and practices and place them on par with the actions described by the narrative subject and the depraved man.

His looks are most like a certain Shah Nazar Zurgar whose image is extant, showing him also barefoot, wearing similarly short trousers, with a shock of hair. In this case, it is the arrival of his young bride and her entourage from Tabriz, when they are greeted by a party of nobles and courtiers outside the gates of Mashhad. Ibrahim Mirza, in his own Diwan of poetry, conjures an image not unlike that of the acrobat O my heart, on the path of poverty towards the Beloved, use your head as your feet if you desire arrival.

All such figures had already been condemned by Karaki in the early s when he had banned the recitations of Abu Muslimnama. Both the spinner and the flute player highlight the necessity for remembrance of and yearning for God. Already familiar to us are the figure of the shepherd tending a ram and a goat at the top right, the tents themselves and the figure of the mother and child before an open tent, at the centre, as well as the depiction of a caldron over an open fire on the top left of the composition.

The shaykh responds by emphasising moderation and the importance of considering the middle ground. Their spirit or soul is imprisoned by their body and their clothes are their senses. Whether such an activity is iconographically novel or not, the image is a familiar one in Sufi poetry.

Among the anecdotes in the Mathnawi about people riding hobby horses one is specifically about the importance of silence. It is they who carry the burden of ignorance, carrier of the load, yet think they are the rider. If Ibrahim Mirza, who would be in and out of favour with his uncle Shah Tahmasp throughout the s and s, or the artists he commissioned to illustrate this episode had other connotations in mind by depicting a scene of children playing hobby horse, it is not clear.

We may wonder if the patron was aware of this detail at all, whether he enjoyed its playfulness or was privy to its other possible significance. In any case, it is unlikely that such a sequential arrangement was a coincidence. The perceptible decrease in the production of luxury manuscript paintings, which was predicated on court patronage and devotion of enormous resources, is not entirely unrelated to the appearance in the s of the apparently enigmatic figures in illustrations of didactic Sufi narratives.

This innovation in the iconography of Persian painting represents the culmination of popular esoteric beliefs that is also reflected in the rise of the Safavids in Indeed, the emblematic figures complemented and expressed Safavid political power at its greatest extent, in the Shia conversion of Iran. For example, see the painting by Boucicaut Master c. Jami, Haft awrang, vol. Kenayeh has also been defined as the sort of tashbih simile where the instrument of comparison is not stated.

With respect to the textual references, Simpson acknowledges the assistance of Jerome W. Clinton, Wheeler M. Thackston and Massumeh Farhad for carrying out a wide variety of research in primary sources. Curry and Erik S. Deborah E. Lentz and Glenn D. Definitions of Sufism given by Sufis who lived in the ninth and tenth centuries are provided by Sarraj d. Nicholson Leiden: Brill, , 34—5; Michael A.

Sells ed. Tauris, , —40 and — Sheila S. Allegory is predicated on interpretation. Grabar, Mostly Miniatures, On primary—secondary subject, see Monroe C. Tambling, Allegory, 65—6. Robinson ed. Thomas W. Paul E. As cited in Monfared, Paywand-i siyasat, Tauris, , Muamma has been translated as enigma, riddle and conundrum in the past.

Lentz and Lowry render muwashshah as acrostic, tarikh as chronogram, and muamma as enigma. Lentz and Lowry, Timur and the Princely Vision, Colin P. Mitchell, Practice of Politics in Safavid Iran, 23—8. Mitchell, Iranian Studies 44 3 : Aghaie and A. John E. On the formation of schools of mysticism, see J. Woods, Aqquyunlu, 3.

Lawrence G. Maria E. Subtelny and Anas B. Bektashi dervishes were closely related to the founding of the Safavid Empire in Iran. Walbridge ed. Moin, Millennial Sovereign, Tauris, , 73—8. Safa attributes the phenomenon to the strong devotion of the Timurid princes rather than to a turning towards religion on the part of a people devastated by foreign invasions, which is the main reason given by Yarsharter. Both also cite the devotion of the Timurids to literature, especially poetry.

Safa, Tarikh-i adabiyat dar Iran, vol. Moin, Millennial Sovereign, 39— Green, Sufism, 2. While condemning extremism ghuluww in devotion to Ali, Jami also praises him. See Jami, Haft awrang, vol. Nazarli, Jahan-i dugane-yi miniyatur-i irani: tafsir-i karbordi-ye naqashi-ye dori-ye safavi, trans. Tauris, , — Tauris, , 29— Regarding an increase in illustrations of texts with Sufi themes in the last decades of the century, see Monfared, Paywand-i siyasat, —44; Eleanor Sims, with Boris I.

From the correspondence between the Safavid shah and the Ottoman sultan. McNeill and Marilyn Robinson Waldman ed. Metropolitan Museum of Art, Fletcher Fund, Chapter 1 1. Exciting and manipulating the imagination khiyal of an audience was a fundamental feature of poetry.

Priscilla P. Gray also refers to the theatrical device of the coulisse when discussing Persian manuscript paintings. Kessler ed. Gray, Persian Painting, Writing on the visual arts, W. See Priscilla P. Also, see Sheila S. See Sheila S. Knysh, Sufism, 64 ff. Green, Sufism, 25—6. Knysh, Sufism, 25—6; Karamustafa, Sufism, 4—5. Knysh, Sufism, Also, see Marshall G. Karamustafa, Sufism, x, 2; Knysh, Sufism, 38, 46, 65— See the Introduction to this volume, n.

See Karamustafa, Sufism, 20, —41 Muhammad bin Karram, d. See Knysh, Islamic Mysticism, 88— Abu Yazid Bistami d. Tauris, , 36— Karamustafa, Sufism, — Variously known as khanqah, ribat, zaviya, tekiyya or dargah. Green, Sufism, Tauris, , —9.

Frye ed. Julie S. Tauris, , 8. Tauris, , —29; W. For a sampling of such works, see Knysh, Sufism, 67— Karamustafa, Sufism, 3—6; Schimmel, Mystical Dimensions, Joseph E. Karamustafa, Sufism, William C. For qualifications regarding Rumi, see Zargar, Sufi Aesthetics, ch. Lewisohn ed. For allusive use of language isharah in Persian Sufi verse and analogical compositions, see Meisami, Medieval Persian Court Poetry, 36—9. See Schimmel, As Through a Veil, Berthels and R. Lewis, Rumi Past and Present, 64—5.

Edward G. Browne Leiden: Brill, , —4. Also, see Schimmel, Mystical Dimensions, Guppy and L. Lewisohn London: I. Tauris, , —4; de Bruijn, Persian Sufi Poetry, Hodgson, Venture of Islam, vol. On superstition, see Assadullah S. Green, Sufism, , Minorsky Leiden: Brill, , Losensky, Welcoming Fighani, —6. See Babayan, Mystics, Monarchs, and Messiahs, 78 ff. See n. Blair and Jonathan M.

See V. Weismann, Naqshbandiyya, 19, 35—7. Weismann, Naqshbandiyya, Ali Shir Navai, Khamsat al-mutahayyirin, trans. Muhammad Nakhjavani, ed. Bakharzi, Maqamat-i jami, Kashifi, Rashahat, —1. Grabar, Mostly Miniatures, 84—5. See ch. See Sims, Peerless Images, xi—xiii. Losensky, Welcoming Fighani, Schimmel, Two-Colored Brocade, Chapter 2 1. For an early examples of an encampment scene and the possible Jalayirid origins of many possible details in such a scene, see Diwan of Ahmad Jalayir in the Freer Gallery of Art F Jonathan J.

Peter W. Avery Cambridge: Islamic Texts Society, See Chapters 4 and 5, below. See Attar, Speech of the Birds, trans. Avery; also see the introduction to Darbandi and Davis, Conference of the Birds, 9— Schimmel, Mystical Dimensions, Savory and Dionisius A.

Furuzanfar, Sharh-i ahwal, According to Julian Baldick, there are eleven named birds, and the same series of eleven birds ask questions more than once, but anonymously. See Ritter, Ocean of the Soul, Darbandi and Davis, Conference of the Birds, 35—6, 40—1, 45—6, 49— Unless otherwise indicated all Persian verses cited from Mantiq al-tayr will be from this edition of the work, with references parenthetically noted in the body of the text, page number s followed by line number s.

Gawharin, ; Darbandi and Davis, Conference of the Birds, 92—3. Darbandi and Davis, Conference of the Birds, 94—5. Gawharin, —9. For more on the depiction of water and trees, see Chapter 5, below. Gawharin, , Gawharin, ; Ritter, Ocean of the Soul, See Ritter, Ocean of the Soul, — Here, for example, it is unclear if the questioner, who uses the excuse of death to forgo the journey, is afraid of natural death or a metaphorical death related to the mundane ways of life that must be abandoned.

It is unclear why the risk of natural death is any greater for a Sufi initiate than a layperson. See Ritter, Ocean of the Soul, 34— Barry, Figurative Art in Medieval Islam, Ritter, Ocean of the Soul, 36, Gawharin, —3, lines ff. See Ritter, Ocean of the Soul, 35—6. Cats were associated with miracles and convents kept cats as guardians.

Darbandi and Davis, Conference of the Birds, Rumi, Mathnawi 1. Mustafa Shah ed. Ritter, Ocean of the Soul, The names and numbers of these varied and changed according to the author and the period. See Gawharin, , n. Gawharin, —2. Darbandi and Davis, Conference of the Birds, —7.

Gawharin, Also Ritter, Ocean of the Soul, ff. Gawharin —2; Ritter, Ocean of the Soul, —1. On Shibli, see Karamustafa, Sufism, 23—6. Gawharin, , line Schimmel, Mystical Dimensions, —6. Iliyas b. Sadi, Kulliyat-i Sadi, The Bukhara and Khwarazm regions were known for cultivation of this particular melon kharbozeh. Shamisa, Farhang-i isharat-i adabiyat-i farsi, See Mathnawi 3.

See Abdul Rahman Jami, Khulasa-i anis al-talebin, ed. Also see Bakharzi, Maqamat-i jami, See Dihkhoda dictionary, available at: www. See also Farhan-i Muin, s. Attar, Mantiq al-tayr, ed. Gawharin, —5. Reproduced in Bahari, Bihzad, Kashf al-asrar, vol. Bashir, Fazlallah Astarabadi and the Hurufis, —4. See also H. Oxford: Oneworld, , Andrew J.

Tauris, , 46—54, See, also Robert W. Sadiq Tehran: Takderakht, , Chapter 3 1. See ibid. This observation has been repeated by other art historians, more recently, Sims, Peerless Images, Notwithstanding the orthography and diacritics, these verses are worded as they appear in Persian on the upper left side of the painting. Nafisi, Sarchishmah, Gawharin, —7, lines — See Shamisa, Farhang-i isharat-i adabiyat-i farsi, s.

Schimmel, Mystical Dimensions, — Gawharin, , n. Sajjadi, Farhang, Attar, Speech of the Birds, trans. Avery, , n. Attar, Musibatnama, ed. Gawharin, 36, lines —5. Also, Rumi, Mathnawi, 5. Visal, See Sajjadi, Farhang, —2. Kashani, Istilahat, Gawharin, , —6. Trimingham, The Sufi Orders in Islam, —7. See also Sajjadi, Farhang, —8; Kashani, Istilahat, —6. See Schimmel, Mystical Dimensions, The Red Sea is used by Jami as a metaphor in a critical line on reasons why he is writing his own version of the Layla and Majnun.

Rumi, Diwan-i kabir, ed. Blair and Bloom, Art and Architecture of Islam, 63—5. See also Jami, Haft awrang, vol. Jami, Salaman wa absal, in Haft awrang, vol. All verses from Jami, Haft awrang, vol. Alishah, with page and line numbers within the brackets. Rumi, Mathnawi, 6. Paul, 77; Weismann, Naqshbandiyya, 27 For the superiority of silent zekr, see Haft awrang, vol. See also, Schimmel, Mystical Dimensions, Woods, Aqquyunlu, 8. Babayan, Mystics, Monarchs, and Messiahs, , , n.

See Trimingham, Sufi Orders in Islam, 54, 58— Kabbani, Naqshbani Sufi Way, Jami, Silsilat al-dhahab, in Haft awrang, vol. Section heading in Silsilat al-dhahab, Jami, Haft awrang, vol. Kashifi, Futuwwatnameh-i sultani, 29; Ridgeon, Jawanmardi, 6.

Kashifi, Futuwwatnameh-i sultani, 5—6. See Gawharin, , line See Nafisi, Sarchishmah, 32— See Purnamdarian, Didar ba Simurgh, — Neale, Jihad in Premodern Sufi Writings, 3—7. Alishir Navai, Majalis al-nafais, trans. Chapter 4 1. The paintings have been reproduced in a volume compiled and published by Martin and Arnold, The Nizami Ms. Khairallah, Edebiyat 4 2 : Or approximately couplets earlier.

See Ilias b. Khamsah of Nizami, British Library, Or. Blair and Bloom, Art and Architecture of Islam , Enclosing the text in the field of the painting was initiated in the s by the Jalayir school of painting.

Nizami, Layla wa Majnun, Basil W. See also Gray, Persian Painting, The caldron, the cook and the tree are flanked by two white tents that are held down with a series of ropes nailed to the ground. Divan of Sultan Ahmad d. The drawings on the margins of folio 35 in the Divan may represent one of the earliest encampment scenes not required by the text.

Grabar, Islamic Visual Culture —, vol. Diez A. British Library, Or. Nizami, Layla wa Majnun, —2. At least two other manuscripts made in Herat earlier in the fifteenth century appear to follow the same arrangement, see at the Topkapi Saray Museum, Hazine , fol. Roxburgh, Persian Album, In the same study, Golombek also describes the function of another tree in a painting from the Kelilah and Dimna in expressing the moral of the story.

The depictions continued into the Safavid period. Topkapi Palace Museum, Istanbul H. Khamsa of Nizami, c. Ilias b. Yusuf Nizami, Makhzan al-asrar, ed. Nizami, Makhzan al-asrar, 86— Schimmel, The Triumphal Sun, See Rumi, Mathnawi 1. For Rumi, watering the body may lead to Hell, whereas watering the soul will lead to the paradisiacal lotus tree.

See Afsahzad, Naqd wa barisi-i athar wa sharhi ahwal-i jami, Layli wa Majnun, already popular, became enormously so during the fifteenth century, when more than ten authors composed their own versions of the story in verse. Monfared, Paywand-i siyasat, — By the late fifteenth century, Shahnama of Ferdowsi still remained the most frequently illustrated text. Afsahzad, Naqd wa barisi-i athar wa sharhi ahwal-i jami, —9. Also, see Sims, Peerless Images, Rumi, The Masnavi, Book One, 4.

Schimmel, Two-Colored Brocade, —5, , n. Abdul Rahman Jami, Khulasa-i anis al-talibin, ed. See also Jami, Nafahat al-uns min hadarat al-quds, — Ahmad b. Also, see Losensky, Welcoming Fighani, See Knysh, Sufism, 84— Jami, Baharistan, For example, see the often illustrated scene in Shahnama of Ferdowsi, where Rustam rescues Bizhan from the well.

Sims, Peerless Images, —6. Arberry, Classical Persian Literature, See Amir Khusrow Dihlawi, Khamsa. Madsen, Rereading Allegory, In an epilogue to his Salaman and Absal, Jami also provides the key to the allegory that is presented through the story. Nizami, Layla wa Majnun, 60, line 15; 66, line 10, and passim. Afsahzad, Naqd wa barisi-i athar wa sharhi ahwal-i jami, Afsahzad, Naqd wa barisi-i athar wa sharhi ahwal-i jami, , As quoted in ibid.

Meisami, Medieval Persian Court Poetry, Vushmgir, ed. Hubert Drake Richmond: Curzon, Ricoeur, Interpretation Theory, Reproduced in Canby, Persian Painting, See, for example, Quran Ahmed Ali, trans. The same term is also used by Attar. See Darbandi and Davis, Conference of the Birds, , Its referents may vary. The particular trope of the gazelle as the beloved was also well known in folk literature.

Jami recounts the story of Majnun doing so not only in the romance of Layla and Majnun, in Haft awrang, vol. Barry, Figurative Art in Medieval Islam, —4 The date of its composition is unknown. Also, see nn. Jami, Tuhfat al-ahrar in Haft awrang, vol. Silent form of zekr, generally recognised as the mainstay of the Naqshbandi ritual, was often accompanied by vocal forms.

For superiority of silent zekr, see Haft awrang, vol. Mordechai Z. Nasafi, Kitab al-insan al-kamil, Rumi, Mathnawi 4, lines — Rumi, Mathnawi 6, In fact, metaphor has more than an emotive value, it offers new information.

See Ricoeur, Interpretation Theory, 47— See Berlekamp, Wonder, Image, and Cosmos, ch. Jay R. Throughout, Kashifi supports his claims by citing the sayings of the Prophet or verses from the Quran. Chapter 5 1. Mitchell, Practice of Politics in Safavid Iran, 5.

Blair and Bloom, Art and Architecture of Islam, Brend, Islamic Art, Afsahzad, Naqd wa barisi-i athar wa sharhi ahwal-i jami, ; Arberry, Classical Persian Literature, Texts written by Navai enjoyed popularity in Safavid Iran, underscoring the importance of the Timurid legacy to the Safavids. Mitchell, Practice of Politics in Safavid Iran, Harvard Art Museums, object No. Sheila R. Discussed in Nazarli, Jahan-i dugane-yi miniyatur-i irani, 47, See, for example, the discussion of letters to the Ottomans from the —61 period.

Mitchell, Practice of Politics in Safavid Iran,—8. Phillott Calcutta: Asiatic Society, Mitchell, Practice of Politics in Safavid Iran, 95 ff, Babayan, Mystics, Monarchs, and Messiahs, —4, , n. Babayan, Mystics, Monarchs, and Messiahs, — Arjomand ed. Babayan, Mystics, Monarchs, and Messiahs, —2.

See, ibid. Tauris, , —1. Kashifi, Futuwwatnama-i sultani, A detailed account of Ashura procession, commemorating the martyrdom of Hussein from the early twentieth century can be found in H. This may be the only Haft awrang manuscript with an illustration of this particular anecdote. Likely alluding to musk deer leaving a fragrant trace that indicates the way to the Beloved. See Mathnawi, 2, line The hare can represent the weak, base soul. Schimmel, The Triumphal Sun, 98, Lines —4, and the line numbers given in parentheses in what follows, are from Layla wa Majnun of Jami in Haft awrang, vol.

See Schimmel, As Through a Veil, , Schimmel, As Through a Veil, 26, See Chapter 4, n. This work was completed before the idea for presenting a septet of compositions as a set called the Haft awrang had emerged. Weismann, Naqshbandiyya, 18, 29— Newman, Safavid Iran, See Schimmel, The Triumphal Sun, 93—6. The tendency of artists to divide manuscript pages into geometrically defined sections was noted in Ernst J.

Gray, Persian Painting, 37, Parsadust, Shah Tahmasp, — Parsadust, Shah Tahmasp, Simpson, Persian Poetry, Painting and Patronage, 12, The order to Mashhad, however, commanded the playing of music for three consecutive days. Writing of the iconography of portraits that depict people of high position holding or offering a flower, Brend writes that we are being presented with a concept rather than a record. See also Parsadust, Shah Tahmasp, —19, — Roxburgh, Persian Album, —3.

Qazi Ahmad, Khulasat al-tawarikh, Collins, Practice of Politics in Safavid Iran, Regarding the significance of cats, see Chapter 2, n. Zamani, Sharh-i, vol. Marianna S. Canby, Persian Painting, Conclusion 1. Khamsa of Ilias b. Tauris, Abrams, M. Tauris, , 3— Adamova, Adel T. Berlin: Reimer, , — Alexander, Jonathan J.

Ali, Ahmed trans. Tauris, , 25— Arberry, A. Ibrahim, Mantiq al-tayr, ed. Ibrahim, Mantiq al-tayr maqamt-i tuyur , ed. Avery, Cambridge: Islamic Texts Society, Ibrahim, Musibatnama, ed. Ibrahim, The Conference of the Birds, trans. Willard R. Babaie, Sussan et al. Bakhirniya, M. Tauris, in association with the Institute of Ismaili Studies, , — Harari ed.

Barthold, V. Minorsky, Leiden: Brill, Bashiri, I. Battistini, Matilde, Symbols and Allegories in Art, trans. Paul Getty Museum, Beardsley, Monroe C. Blair, Sheila S. Blochet, E. Bloom, Jonathan M. Boldyrev, A. Elizabeth Davies, in Leyla and Mejnun by Fuzuli, trans. Geological Society of America. All rights reserved. Publication date:. Book Chapter. Author s. Manuel Berberian Manuel Berberian. Publication history Accepted: 15 June Online: 23 March Get Permissions. ABSTRACT This is an in-depth review and analysis of the long and untold history of development of earth science, geological thinking, research, and exploration on the Iranian Plateau within its historical, political, and socioeconomic context.

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