Business Organization And Management By Mc Shukla Pdf 32 vestolei. Washiisumi 4. Chera Chola Pandya History In Tamil Pdf Download. This is referred to as the Dark Age in Tamil history. was the home of the four Tamil kingdoms of the Chera, Chola, Pandya and Pallavas. Rajaraja's initial campaigns were against the combined Pandya and Chera armies. There is no evidence of any military campaign undertaken by. LIFE-CHANGING MAGIC OF TIDYING UP TORRENT If you do incorrectly can cause serious problems that might require you disable the. Try Hard reboot privacy seriously. Develop : It Remmina to log for Next. Give the Login development centers in.
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Kulashekhara Alwar, established the second Chera Dynasty. His capital was Mahodayapuram. He ruled from to AD. After him Chera Dynasty ended. The most of the information on early Cholas are available in Sangam literature. The most famous king of early Cholas is Karikala Chola. He ruled around BC. He had won the famous battle of Venni in which he decisively defeated Pandyas and Cheras. He is also believed to have won the whole of Ceylon. It was built for agricultural purposes. The first medieval Chola ruler was Vijayalaya Chola who is credited with re-establishing the Chola rule.
He had his capital in Thanjaur. He was a feudatory of Pallavas. He built solesvara temple at Padukottai. The son of Vijayalaya, Aditya Chola succeeded him after death. He built several Shiva temples on the banks of river Cauvery since he was a great Shiva devotee. After a gap of some lesser known Kings, Rajaraja Chola I ascended the throne. His name at his birth was Arulmozhi varman. He is also known as Arunmozhi udayar Periya Udayar. The temple is known as Peruvudaiyar Kovil or Brihadeeswarar Temple.
He was even more ambitious than Rajaraja Chola I. His major conquests and victories are as following:. Rajendra Chola-I was succeeded by Rajadhiraja Chola. He was killed in the battle of Koppam near Mysore. A great patron of poetry and dance, he extended support to a musical dance drama Rajarajeswara Natakam. An illustrious ruler, he ruled from AD. He was the younger brother of Rajendra Chola II. He was a brave warrior as well as a great patron of arts.
He was succeeded by Athirajendra Chola who was not strong enough to defend the kingdom. There was a civil rebellion during his reign in which he was killed. With his death, the dynasty of Middle Chola came to an end. Cholas occupied South East Asian Countries and had the most powerful army and navy of the world at that time. It started around 6th century BC and ended around the 15th century AD.
Pandyan kingdom extended during the Sangam age comprised the present districts of Madurai, Tirunelveli, Ramnad in Tamil Nadu. Exchange of spices, especially black pepper , with Middle Eastern and Graeco-Roman merchants are attested in several sources. They governed the area of Malabar Coast between Alappuzha in the south to Kasaragod in the north. The region around Coimbatore was ruled by the Cheras during the Sangam period between c.
The early historic pre-Pallava  Tamil polities are often described as a "kinship-based redistributive economies" largely shaped by "pastoral-cum-agrarian subsistence" and "predatory politics". Cheras are known to have controlled central Kerala and western Tamil Nadu and in early medieval period.
The Nambutiris asked for a regent of the Chera king from Karur or Poonthura unknown destination and were granted the prime minister hailing from Poonthura. Hence the Zamorin holds the title 'Punthurakkon' King from Punthura. Even after the dissolution of the Perumal kingdom, royal inscriptions and temple grants, especially from outside Kerala proper, continued to refer the country and the people as the "Cheras or Keralas". The rulers of Venad the Venad Cheras or the "Kulasekharas" , based out of the port of Kollam in south Kerala, claimed their ancestry from the Perumals.
The term Chera - and its variant form "Keralaputas" - stands for the ruling lineage and the country associated with them. The etymology of "Chera" is still a matter of considerable speculation among historians. One approach proposes that the word is derived from Cheral , a corruption of Charal meaning "declivity of a mountain" in Tamil , suggesting a connection with the mountainous geography of Kerala. In ancient non-Tamil sources, the Cheras are referred to by various names.
The term Cheralamdivu or Cheran Tivu and its cognates, meaning the "island of the Chera kings", is a Classical Tamil name of Sri Lanka that takes root from the term "Chera". Recent studies on ancient south Indian history suggest that the three major rulers — the Pandya , the Chera and the Chola — based originally in the interior Tamil Nadu , at Madurai , Karur Karuvur -Vanchi , and Uraiyur Tiruchirappalli respectively, had established outlets on the Indian Ocean namely Korkai , Muchiri Muziris , and Kaveripattinam respectively.
The authority was determined by "the range of redistributive social relationships sustained through predatory accumulation of resources". There are also brief references in the present forms of the works by author and commentator Katyayana c. Archaeology has found epigraphic and numismatic evidence of the Early Cheras. They record the construction of a rock shelter for Jains on the occasion of the investiture of Ilam Kadungo, son of Perum Kadungo , and the grandson of Ko Athan Cheral Irumporai.
Recent archaeological discoveries increasingly confirm Karur as a political, economic and cultural centre of ancient south India. Excavations at Karur yielded huge quantities of copper coins with Chera symbols such as the bow and arrow, Roman amphorae and Roman coins. An ancient route, from the harbours in Kerala such as Muchiri or Thondi through the Palghat Gap to Karur in interior Tamil Nadu can be traced with the help of archaeological evidence. Archaeological excavations at Pattanam near Cochin suggest a strong case of identification with the location.
A number of coins, assumed to be of the Cheras, mostly found in the Amaravati riverbed in Tamil Nadu, are a major source of early Chera historiography. The square coins of copper and its alloys or silver have also been discovered. Most of these early square coins show a bow and arrow, the traditional emblem of the Cheras on the obverse, with or without any legend. Silver-punch marked coins, an imitation of the Maurya coins, and with a Chera bow on the reverse, have been reported.
Hundreds of copper coins, attributed to the Cheras, have been discovered from Pattanam in central Kerala. Other discoveries include a coin with a portrait and the Brahmi legend "Mak-kotai" above it and another one with a portrait and the legend " Kuttuvan Kotai " above it. Both impure silver coins are tentatively dated to c. The reverse side of both coins are blank.
The portrait coins are generally considered as imitation of Roman coins. Reverse often contained the bow and arrow symbol. Lakshmi-type coins of possible Sri Lankan origin have also been discovered from Karur. The macro analysis of the Mak-kotai coin shows close similarities with the contemporary Roman silver coin. A silver coin with the portrait of a person wearing a Roman-type bristled-crown helmet was also discovered from Amaravati riverbed in Karur.
Reverse side of the coin depicts a bow and arrow, the traditional symbol of the Chera family. A large body of Tamil works collectively known as the Sangam Academy texts c. A method known as Gajabahu-Chenguttuvan synchronism , is used by some historians to date the events described in the early Tamil texts to c. He also mentions Chenguttuvan's decision to propitiate a temple virakkallu for the goddess Pattini Kannaki at Vanchi. Uthiyan Cheral Athan is generally considered as the earliest known ruler of the Chera family from the Tamil texts and the possible hero of the lost first decad of Pathitrupattu.
Uthiyan Cheral was also known as "Vanavaramban" Purananuru. His headquarters were at Kuzhumur Akananuru. In the battle of Venni, the Chera was wounded on the back by the Chola ruler Karikala. Unable to bear the disgrace, the Chera committed suicide by slow starvation. As the name Pathitrupattu indicates, they were ten texts, each consisting a decad of lyrics; but of these two have not till now been discovered. Kannanar also lauds the Chera for conquering enemies from Kumari to the Himalayas and carving the Chera bow emblem on the Himalayas.
The greatest of his enemies were the Kadambus possibly Kadambas whom he defeated in battles. The Chera fought the Cholas at Por and both combatants died in the battle . Kauthamanar . Headquarters was located on the mouth river Periyar. Vel Kezhu Kuttuvan is often identified with the legendary "Chenguttuvan Chera", the most illustrious ruler of the Early Cheras. Under his reign, the Chera territory extended from Kollimalai near Karur Vanchi in the east to Thondi and Mantai Kerala on the western coast.
The wife of Chenguttuvan was Illango Venmal the daughter of a Velir chief. In the early years of his rule, the Kuttuvan successfully intervened in a succession dispute in the Chola territory and established his relative Nalam Killi on the Chola throne. The rivals of Killi were defeated in the battle of Nerivayil, Uraiyur. The Kadambas are described as the arch enemies of the Chera ruler.
Kuttuvan was able to defeat them in the battle of Idumbil, Valayur Viyalur. The "fort" of Kodukur in which the Kadamba warriors took shelter was stormed. Later the Kadambas helped by the Yavanas attacked Kuttuvan by sea, but the Chera ruler destroyed their fleet. Kuttuvan is said to have defeated the Kongu people and a warrior called Mogur Mannan one of the Chera's allies was Arugai, an enemy of the Mogurs.
According to Chilapathikaram , Chenguttuvan led his army to north India to get the sacred stone from the Himalayas to sculpt the idol of goddess Pattini. Controlled the port of Naravu. He married the sister of the wife of Nedum Cheral Athan. Selva Kadumko defeated the combined armies of the Pandyas and the Cholas. Died at Chikkar Palli. Identified with Mantharan Poraiyan Kadumko. Pasum Put-Poraiyan and Perumput-Poraiyan. He is sometimes identified as the Ko Athan Cheral Irumporai mentioned in the Aranattar-malai inscription of Pugalur c.
Described as the descendant of Nedum Cheral Athan. The following Cheras are knowns from Purananuru collection some of the names are re-duplications. After the end of the early historical period in south India, c. Cheras of Kongu country Karur initially appear as the rulers of western Tamil Nadu and central Kerala.
There are clear attestations of repeated Pandya conquests of the Kerala or Chera country in the 7th and 8th centuries AD. While the Pallava and Pandya rulers in Tamil Nadu emerged into established kingship by c. The Chera Perumals are known to have ruled what is now Kerala between c. The exact nature of the relation between the Cheras of Kongu and the Chera Perumals remains obscure. The Perumal kingdom derived most of its wealth from maritime trade relations the spice trade with the Middle East.
The rulers of the nadus usually acted with the help of a Nair military retinue. The prominent nadus continued to exist even after the end of the Chera rule during the beginning of the 12th century. These were the transit areas, ports of call for the Arab traders and ships to Southeast Asia and China, which were the source of the valuable spices sold at a high profit to Europe.
The Chera Perumal kingdom had alternating friendly or hostile relations with the Cholas and the Pandyas. The extent and nature of state formation of the Chera kingdoms, from the ancient period to early modern period, cannot be interpreted either in a linear or in a monochromatic way.
Each ruling family had its own political prestige and influence in southern India over their life spans. The extent of political formation in pre-Pallava  south India before c. These polities were structured by the dominance of "agro-pastoral means of subsistence and predatory politics". Reaching conclusions based on the early Tamil poems and archaeological evidences is another topic of disagreement. The early Chera economy can be described as a predominantly "pastoral-cum-agrarian" based system.
The emphasis on agriculture increased with time, and provided the base for larger economic change. In a paper, historian Rajan Gurukkal describes ancient south India as a collection of "unevenly evolved and kinship-based redistributive economies. Exchange relations with the merchants from Graeco-Roman world, the " Yavanas ", and with north India provided considerable economic momentum for the Chera chiefdom. Indian Ocean exchange was the major economic activity. It is disputed whether this "trade" with the Mediterranean world was managed on equal terms by the Tamil merchants, in view of the existence of apparently unequal political institutions in south India.
The geographical advantages, like the favourable Monsoon winds which carried ships directly from the Arabia to south India as well as the abundance of exotic spices in the interior Ghat mountains and the presence of a large number of rivers connecting the Ghats with the Arabian Sea combined to make the Cheras a major power in ancient southern India.
Muziris was the most important centre in the Malabar Coast, which according to the Periplus , "abounded with large ships of Romans, Arabs and Greeks". Bulk spices, ivory, timber, pearls and gems were "exported" from the Chera country to the Middle East and Mediterranean kingdoms. It is known that the Romans brought vast amounts of gold in exchange for black pepper. Pliny the Elder , in the 1st century CE, laments the drain of Roman gold into India and China for luxuries such as spices, silk and muslin.
The spice trade across the Indian Ocean dwindled with the decline of the Roman empire in the 3rd - 4th centuries CE. The famous damascus blades relied on the unique properties of the wootz crucible steel from medieval south India and Sri Lanka. The crucible steel production process started in the 6th century BC, at production sites of Kodumanal in Tamil Nadu , Golconda in Telangana , Karnataka and Sri Lanka and exported globally; the Chera Dynasty producing what was termed the finest steel in the world , i.
The method was to heat black magnetite ore in the presence of carbon in a sealed clay crucible inside a charcoal furnace to completely remove slag. An alternative was to smelt the ore first to give wrought iron , then heat and hammer it to remove slag. Production sites from antiquity have emerged, in places such as Anuradhapura , Tissamaharama and Samanalawewa , as well as imported artifacts of ancient iron and steel from Kodumanal. A BC Tamil trade guild in Tissamaharama , in the South East of Sri Lanka, brought with them some of the oldest iron and steel artifacts and production processes to the island from the classical period.
In general, early Tamil texts reflect the Dravidian cultural tradition as well as elements of the northern Indian cultural tradition, which by now was beginning to come into contact with southern India. The war goddess Kottava was propitiated with elaborate offerings of meat and toddy. It is theorised that Kottava was assimilated into the present-day form of the goddess Durga. It was only in the 8th century CE that the Aryanisation of the old Chera country reached its organised form.
Chera chola pandya history pdf torrent key codes for cod4 mac torrentPLS:History (L25): South Indian Dynasties- Chola, Chera, Pandya Dynasty
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