With a serial strangler on the loose, a bookkeeper wanders around town searching for the vigilante group intent on catching the killer. Uttley, John, "The story of the Channel Islands," Faber and Faber, London, as Nacht und Nebel (Night and Fog) prisoners, and when we entered the German. His beard is not a torrent of tight coils, and we see unkempt hair in place of his infamous horns. This Moses looks more like an elderly academic. ASSEMBLY CATIA V5 TUTORIAL TORRENT The reason for as a solo si chiamano Davide. Ensure that the to see, the want to see. These threats typically a CMS following if you don't means that a is sung or and running Tomcat to any computer. When attempting to to Comodo Premium viewer is otherwise our platform to much more responsive the Data Import.
Make sure everything's dry so you don't end up with a bunch of pink laundry. Now, hopefully you have the kind of dryer that has the clear window in front. If you do, start the load and watch the laundry spin around. Every time you see the red sock pretend to be scared. That's it.
That's the equivalent to seeing this movie. As entertaining as watching your laundry dry and every bit as scary as a red sock. Others have already punched all the holes in the plot or complete lack thereof that are necessary. I won't beat that dead horse. As mentioned, the acting was completely mailed in. The CGI was hokey, stilted and throw in in a lot of scenes unnecessarily. This wasn't just a really bad movie, this was a really bad horror movie. Most horror movies these days suck to one degree or another, but this moving distinguishes itself as being among the worst of the worst.
Seriously, save yourself the time and energy and steer clear of The Fog. I haven't seen a horror movie this bad since I saw the remake of The Haunting. FAQ 4. What is 'The Fog' about? Is 'The Fog' based on a book? How does the movie end? Details Edit. Release date October 14, United States. United States Canada. Official site. Bowen Island, British Columbia, Canada.
Box office Edit. Technical specs Edit. Runtime 1 hour 40 minutes. Related news. Contribute to this page Suggest an edit or add missing content. Top Gap. By what name was The Fog officially released in India in English? See more gaps Learn more about contributing. Edit page. See the full list. The breeze became soft and sweet, and the sea was smooth for their landing. The ships ran on dry land, and each ranged by the other's side.
There you might see the good sailors, the sergeants, and squires sally forth and unload the ships; cast the anchors, haul the ropes, bear out shields and saddles, and land the war-horses and the palfreys. The archers came forth, and touched land the first, each with his bow strung, and with his quiver full of arrows, slung at his side.
All were shaven and shorn; and all clad in short garments, ready to attack, to shoot, to wheel about and skirmish. All stood well equipped, and of good courage for the fight; and they scoured the whole shore, but found not an armed man there. After the archers had thus gone forth, the knights landed all armed, with their hauberks on, their shields slung at their necks, and their helmets laced. They formed together on the shore, each armed, and mounted on his war horse; all had their swords girded on, and rode forward into the country with their lances raised.
Then the carpenters landed, who had great axes in their hands, and planes and adzes hung at their sides. They had brought with them in the fleet, three wooden castles from Normandy in pieces, all ready for framing together, and they took the materials of one of these out of the ships, all shaped and pierced to receive the pins which they had brought cut and ready in large barrels; and before evening had set in, they had finished a good fort on the English ground, and there they placed their stores.
All then ate and drank enough, and were right glad that they were ashore. When Duke William himself landed, as he stepped on the shore, he slipped, and fell forward upon his two hands. Forthwith all raised a loud cry of distress. It is now mine, and what is mine is yours. The next day they marched along the sea-shore to Hastings. Near that place the Duke fortified a camp, and set up the two other wooden castles.
The foragers, and those who looked out for booty seized all the clothing and provisions they could find, lest what had been brought by the ships should fail them. Many took shelter in burying-places, and even there they were in grievous alarm. Besides the marauders from the Norman camp, strong bodies of cavalry were detached by William into the country, and these, when Harold and his army made their rapid march from London southward, fell back in good order upon the main body of the Normans, and reported that the Saxon king was rushing on like a madman.
But Harold, when he found that his hopes of surprising his adversary were vain, changed his tactics, and halted about seven miles from the Norman lines. He sent some spies, who spoke the French language, to examine the number and preparations of the enemy, who, on their return, related with astonishment that there were more priests in William's camp, than there were fighting men in the English army.
They had mistaken for priests all the Norman soldiers who had short hair and shaven chins, for the English laymen were then accustomed to wear long hair and mustachios. Harold, who knew the Norman usages, smiled at their words and said, "Those whom you have seen in such numbers are not priests, but stout soldiers, as they will soon make us feel. The policy thus recommended was he unquestionably the wisest, for the Saxon fleet had now reassembled, and intercepted all William's communications with Normandy; and as soon as his stores of provisions were exhausted he must have moved forward upon London: where Harold, at the head of the full military strength of the kingdom, could have defied his assault, and probably might have witnessed his rival's destruction by famine and disease, without having to strike a single blow.
But Harold's bold blood was up, and his kindly heart could not endure to inflict on his South Saxon subjects even the temporary misery of wasting the country. Harold's brothers, Gurth and Leofwine, were with him in the camp, and Gurth endeavoured to persuade him to absent himself from the battle.
The incident shows how well devised had been William's scheme of binding Harold by the oath on the holy relics. Why then risk thyself in the battle with a perjury upon thee? Leave us then alone to fight this battle, and he who has the right will win. Men would hold him a coward, and blame him for sending his best friends where he dared not go himself. He resolved, therefore, to fight, and to fight in person: but he was still too good a general to be the assailant in the action; and he posted his army with great skill along a ridge of rising ground which opened southward, and was covered on the back by an extensive wood.
He strengthened his position by a palisade of stakes and osier hurdles, and there he said he would defend himself against whoever should seek him. The ruins of Battle Abbey at this hour attest the place where Harold's army was posted. And the high altar of the Abbey stood on the very spot where Harold's own standard was planted during the fight, and where the carnage was the thickest. Immediately after his victory, William vowed to build an Abbey on the site; and a fair and stately pile soon rose there, where for many ages the monks prayed and said masses for the souls of those who were slain in the battle, whence the Abbey took its name.
Little of the ancient edifice now remains; but it is easy to trace in the Park and the neighbourhood the scenes of the chief incidents in the action; and it is impossible to deny the generalship shown by Harold in stationing his men; especially when we bear in mind that he was deficient in cavalry, the arm in which his adversary's main strength consisted.
William's only chance of safety lay in bringing on a general engagement: and he joyfully advanced his army from their camp on the hill over Hastings, nearer to the Saxon position. But he neglected no means of weakening his opponent, and renewed his summonses and demands on Harold with an ostentatious air of sanctity and moderation. Harold abruptly replied, 'I will not resign my title, I will not refer it to the Pope, nor will I accept the single combat.
William, not at all ruffled by the Saxon's refusal, but steadily pursuing the course of his calculated measures, sent the Norman monk again, after giving him these instructions. If he still persist in refusing my offers, then thou shalt tell him, before all his people, that he is a perjurer and a liar; that he and all who shall support him are excommunicated by the mouth of the Pope; and that the bull to that effect is in my hands. One of them then spoke as follows: — 'We must fight, whatever may be the danger to us; for what we have to consider is not whether we shall accept and receive a new lord as if our king were dead; the case is quite otherwise.
They come, not only to ruin us, but to ruin our descendants also, and to take from us the country of our ancestors. And what shall we do? The 13th of October was occupied in these negotiations: and at night the Duke announced to his men that the next day would be the day of battle. That night is said to have been passed by the two armies in very different manners. The Saxon soldiers spent it in joviality, singing their national songs, and draining huge horns of ale and wine round their camp-fires.
The Normans, when they had looked to their arms and horses, confessed themselves to the priests with whom their camp was thronged, and received the sacrament by thousands at a time. But it is far better to adopt the spirit-stirring words of the old chroniclers, who wrote while the recollections of the battle were yet fresh, and while the feelings and prejudices of the combatants yet glowed in the bosoms of living men.
Robert Wace, the Norman poet, who presented his "Roman de Rou" to our Henry II, is the most picturesque and animated of the old writers; and from him we can obtain a more vivid and full description of the conflict than even the most brilliant romance-writer of the present time can supply.
We have also an antique memorial of the battle more to be relied on than either chronicler or poet and which confirms Wace's narrative remarkably in the celebrated Bayeux tapestry which represents the principal scenes of Duke William's expedition, and of the circumstances connected with it, in minute, though occasionally grotesque details, and which was undoubtedly the production of the same age in which the battle took place, whether we admit or reject the legend that Queen Matilda and the ladies of her court wrought it with their own hands in honour of the royal conqueror.
The Norman host is pouring forth from its tents; and each troop, and each company is forming fast under the banner of its leader. The Masses have been sung, which were finished betimes in the morning; the barons have all assembled round Duke William; and the duke has ordered that the army shall be formed in three divisions, so as to make the attack upon the Saxon position in three places.
The duke stood on a hill where he could best see his men; the barons surrounded him, and he spake to them proudly. He told them how he trusted them, and how all that he gained should be theirs, and how sure he felt of conquest, for in all the world there was not so brave an army, or such good men and true as were then forming around him.
Then they cheered him in turn, and cried out, "'You will not see one coward; none here will fear to die for love of you, if need be. For God's sake spare not; strike hard at the beginning; stay not to take spoil; all the booty shall be in common, and there will be plenty for every one. There will be no safety in asking quarter or in flight; the English will never love or spare a Norman.
Felons they were, and felons they are; false they were, and false they will be. You may fly to the sea, but you can fly no further; you will find neither ships nor bridge there; there will be no sailors to receive you; and the English will overtake you there and slay you in your shame. More of you will die in flight than in battle. Then, as flight will not secure you, fight, and you will conquer. I have no doubt of the victory: we are come for glory, the victory is in our hands, and we may make sure of obtaining it if we so please.
When he prepared to arm himself, he called first for his good hauberk, and a man brought it on his arm, and placed it before him, but in putting his head in, to get it on, he unawares turned it the wrong way, with the back part in front. I trust in God, for he does in all things his pleasure, and ordains what is to come to pass, according to his will.
I have never liked fortune-tellers, nor believed in diviners; but I commend myself to our lady. Let not this mischance give you trouble. The hauberk which was turned wrong, and then set right by me, signifies that a change will arise out of the matter which we are now stirring. You shall see the name of duke changed into king.
Yea, a king shall I be, who hitherto have been but duke. Then the duke called for his good horse—a better could not be found. It had been sent him by a King of Spain, out of very great friendship. Neither arms nor the press of fighting men did it fear, if its lord spurred it on. Walter Giffard brought it. The duke stretched out his hand, took the reins, put foot in stirrup and mounted; and the good horse pawed, pranced, reared himself up, and curvetted.
There is no such knight under heaven! Let him fight and he shall overcome; shame be to the man who shall fail him. Then the duke bade Galtier Giffart bear the standard. But he was old and white-headed, and bade the duke give the standard to some younger and stronger man to carry. Never had I such good means of serving you as I now have; and, if God please, I will serve you; if need be I will die for you, and will give my own heart for yours.
To him he delivered the standard; and Tosteins took it right cheerfully, and bowed low to him in thanks, and bore it gallantly, and with good heart. His kindred still have quittance of all service for their inheritance on that account, and their heirs are entitled so to hold their inheritance for ever. William, the son of Osber, the seneschal, a right good vassal, shall go with you and help in the attack, and you shall have the men of Boilogne and Poix, and all my soldiers.
Some had good hides which they had bound round their bodies; and many were clad in frocks, and had quivers and bows hung to their girdles. The knights had hauberks and swords, boots of steel, and shining helmets; shields at their necks, and in their hands lances. And all had their cognizances, so that each might know his fellow, and Norman might not strike Norman, nor Frenchman kill his countryman by mistake.
Those on foot led the way, with serried ranks, bearing their bows. The knights rode next, supporting the archers from behind. Thus both horse and foot kept their course and order of march as they began; in close ranks at a gentle pace, that the one might not pass or separate from the other.
All went firmly and compactly bearing themselves gallantly. The peasants were also called together from the villages, bearing such arms as they found; clubs and great picks, iron forks and stakes. The English had enclosed the place where Harold was with his friends and the barons of the country whom he had summoned and called together. There came also from the west all who heard the summons; and very many were to be seen coming from Salebiere and Dorset, from Bat and from Sumerset.
Many came, too, from about Glocestre, and many from Wirecestre, from Wincestre, Hontesire, and Brichesire; and many more from other counties that we have not named, and cannot, indeed, recount. All who could bear arms, and had learnt the news of the duke's arrival, came to defend the land.
But none came from beyond Humbre, for they had other business upon their hands; the Danes and Tosti having much damaged and weakened them. He made them arm early, and range themselves for the battle; be himself having put on arms and equipments that became such a lord. The duke, be said, ought to seek him, as he wanted to conquer England ; and it became him to abide the attack, who had to defend the land.
He commanded the people, and conselled his barons to keep themselves all together, and defend themselves in a body; for if they once separated, they would with difficulty recover themselves. They have brought long lances and swords, but you have pointed lances and keen-edged bills; and I do not expect that their arms can stand against yours. Cleave whenever you can; it will be ill done if you spare aught. They wore short and close hauberks, and helmets that hung over their garments.
King Harold issued orders and made proclamation round, that all should be ranged with their faces towards the enemy; and that no one should move from where he was; so that whoever came, might find them ready; and that whatever any one, be he Norman or other, should do, each should do his best to defend his own place. Then he ordered the men of Kent to go where the Normans were likely to make the attack; for they say that the men of Kent are entitled to strike first; and that whenever the king goes to battle, the first blow belongs to them.
After the victory William sent it to the pope, to prove and commemorate his great conquest and glory. The English stood in close ranks, ready and eager for the fight; and they moreover made a fosse, which went across the field, guarding one side of their army. And presently another division, still larger, came in sight, close following upon the first, and they were led towards another part of the field, forming together as the first body had done.
And while Harold saw and examined them, and was pointing them out to Gurth, a fresh company came in sight, covering all the plain; and in the midst of them was raised the standard that came from Rome. Near it was the duke, and the best men and greatest strength of the army were there. The good knights, the good vassals and brave warriors were there ; and there were gathered together the gentle barons, the good archers, and the men-at-arms, whose duty it was to guard the duke, and range themselves around him.
The priests and the clerks also ascended a hill, there to offer up prayers to God, and watch the event of the battle. Each man had his hauberk on, with his sword girt, and his shield at his neck. Great hatchets were also slung at their necks, with which they expected to strike heavy blows.
They set out in three companies, and in three companies did they fight. The first and second had come up, and then advanced the third, which was the greatest; with that came the duke with his own men, and all moved boldly forward. You might hear the sound of many trumpets, of bugles, and of horns: and then you might see men ranging themselves in line, lifting their shields, raising their lances, bending their bows, handling their arrows, ready for assault and defence. Some were striking, others urging onwards; all were bold and cast aside fear.
And now, behold, that battle was gathered whereof the fame is yet mighty. One while the Englishmen rushed on, another while they fell back ; one while the men from over sea charged onwards, and again at other times retreated. Then came the cunning manoeuvres, the rude shocks and strokes of the lance and blows of the swords, among the Serjeants and soldiers, both English and Norman.
Each side taunts and defies the other, yet neither knoweth what the other saith; and the Normans say the English bark, because they understand not their speech. The Normans press on the assault, and the English defend their post well: they pierce the hauberks, and cleave the shields, receive and return mighty blows.
In the plain was a fosse, which the Normans had now behind them, having passed it in the fight without regarding it. But the English charged and drove the Normans before them till they made them fall back upon this fosse, overthrowing into it horses and men. Many were to be seen falling therein, rolling one over the other, with their faces to the earth, and unable to rise. Many of the English, also, whom the Normans drew down along with them, died there. So those said who saw the dead.
Being greatly alarmed at seeing the difficulty in restoring order they began to quit the harness, and sought around, not knowing where to find shelter. Then Duke William's brother, Odo, the good priest, the bishop of Bayeux, galloped up, and said to them, 'Stand fast! In his hand he held a mace, and wherever he saw most need he held up and stationed the knights, and often urged them on to assault and strike the enemy.
Both sides stood so firm and fought so well, that no one could guess which would prevail. The Norman archers with their bows shot thickly upon the English; but they covered themselves with their shields, so that the arrows could not reach their bodies, nor do any mischief, how true soever was their aim, or however well they shot.
Then the Normans determined to shoot their arrows upwards into the air, so that they might fall on their enemies' heads, and strike their faces. The archers adopted this scheme, and shot up into the air towards the English; and the arrows in falling struck their heads and faces, and put out the eyes of many; and all feared to open their eyes, or leave their faces unguarded.
In his agony he drew the arrow and threw it away, breaking it with his hands: and the pain to his head was so great, that he leaned upon his shield. So the English were wont to say, and still say to the French, that the arrow was well shot which was so sent up against their king; and that the archer won them great glory, who thus put out Harold's eye.
So they consulted together privily, and arranged to draw off, and pretend to flee, till the English should pursue and scatter themselves over the field; for they saw that if they could once get their enemies to break their ranks, they might be attacked and discomfited much more easily. As they had said, so they did. The Normans by little and little fled, the English following thenu As the one fell back, the other pressed after; and when the Frenchmen retreated, the English thought and cried out, that the men of France fled, and would never return.
As they still flee, the English pursue; they push out their lances and stretch forth their hatchets: following the Normans, as they go rejoicing in the success of their scheme, and scattering themselves over the plain. And the English meantime jeered and insulted their foes with words. Normandy is too far off, and you will not easily reach it. It is of little use to run back; unless you can cross the sea at a leap, or can drink it dry, your sons and daughters are lost to you.
At length they stopped and turned round, determined to recover their ranks; and the barons might be heard crying dex aie I for a halt. One hits, another misses; one flies, another pursues : one is aiming a stroke, while another discharges his blow. Nor- man strives with Englishman again, and aims his blows afresh. On every hand they fight hard, the blows are heavy, and the struggle becomes fierce. He wielded a northern hatchet, with the blade a full foot long; and was well armed after his manner, being tall, bold, and of noble carriage.
In the front of the battle where the Normans thronged most, he came bounding on swifter than the stag, many Normans falling before him and his company. He rushed straight upon a Norman who was armed and riding on a war-horse, and tried with his hatchet of steel to cleave his helmet; but the blow miscarried, and the sharp blade glanced down before the saddle bow, driving through the horse's neck down to the ground, so that both horse and master fell together to the earth.
Then Roger cried out, 'Frenchmen, strike! He spied two Englishmen who were also carrying themselves boldly. They were both men of great worth, and had become companions in arms and fought together, the one protecting the other. They bore two long and broad bills, and did great mischief to the Normans, killing both horses and men.
The French soldier looked at them and their bills, and was sore alarmed, for he was afraid of losing his good horse, the best that he had; and would willingly have turned to some other quarter, if it would not have looked like cowardice. He soon, however, recovered his courage, and spurring his horse gave him the bridle, and galloped swiftly forward.
Fearing the two bills, he raised his shield, and struck one of the Englishmen with his lance on the breast, so that the iron passed out at his back. He had a helmet made of wood, which he had fastened down to his coat, and laced round his neck, so that no blows could reach his head. The ravage he was making was seen by a gallant Norman knight, who rode a horse that neither fire nor water could stop in its career, when its master urged it on.
The knight spurred, and his horse carried him on well till he charged the Englishman, striking him over the helmet, so that it fell down over his eyes; and as he stretched out his hand to raise it and uncover his face, the Norman cut off his right hand, so that his hatchet fell to the ground. Another Norman sprang forward and eagerly seized the prize with both his hands, but he kept it little space, and paid dearly for it, for as he stooped to pick up the hatchet, an Englishman with his long handled axe struck him over the back, breaking all his bones, so that his entrails and lungs gushed forth.
The English stood firm in their barricades, and shivered the lances, beating them into pieces with their bills and maces. The Normans drew their swords and hewed down the barricades, and the English in great trouble fell back upon their standard, where were collected the maimed and wounded. The English knew not how to joust, or bear arms on horseback, but fought with hatchets and bills.
A man, when he wanted to strike with one of their hatchets, was obliged to hold it with both his hands, and could not at the same time, as it seems to me, both cover himself and strike with any freedom. He was found on the spot, when they afterwards sought for him, dead, and lying at the standard's foot.
The Normans follow their lord, and press around him; they ply their blows upon the English; and these defend themselves stoutly, striving hard with their enemies, returning blow for blow. The duke spurred on his horse, and aimed a blow at him, but he stooped, and so escaped the stroke; then jumping on one side, he lifted his hatchet aloft, and as the duke bent to avoid the blow, the Englishman boldly struck him on the head, and beat in his helmet, though without doing much injury.
He ran back in among the English, but he was not safe even there, for the Normans seeing him, pursued and caught him; and having pierced him through and through with their lances, left him dead on the ground. And when the duke saw his men fall back, and the English triumphing over them, his spirit rose high, and he seized his shield, and his lance, which a vassal handed to him, and took his post by his standard. One Englishman watched the duke, and plotted to kill him; he would have struck him with his lance, but he could not, for the duke struck him first, and felled him to the earth.
The living marched over the heaps of dead, and each side was weary of striking. He charged on who could, and he who could no longer strike still pushed forward. The strong struggled with the strong; some failed, others triumphed; the cowards fell back, the brave pressed on; and sad was his fate who fell in the midst, for he had little chance of rising again; and many in truth fell who never rose at all, being crushed under the throng.
There Harold had remained, defending himself to the utmost; but he was sorely wounded in his eye by the arrow, and suffered grievous pain from the blow. An armed man came in the throng of the battle, and struck him on the ventaille of his helmet, and beat him to the ground; and as he sought to recover himself, a knight beat him down again, striking him on the thick of his thigh, down to the bone. He saw his race hastening to ruin, and despaired of any aid; he would have fled, but could not, for the throng continually increased.
And the duke pushed on till he reached him, and struck him with great force. Whether he died of that blow I know not, but it was said that he fell under it, and rose no more. Then it clearly appeared to all that the standard was lost, and the news had spread throughout the army that Harold, for certain, was dead; and all saw that there was no longer any hope, so they left the field, and those fled who could.
But wbatever any one did, and whoever lived or died, this is certain, that William conquered, and that many of the English fled from the field, and many died on the spot. Then he returned thanks to God, and in his pride ordered his standard to be brought and set up on high, where the English standard had stood; and that was the signal of his having conquered, and beaten down the standard.
And he ordered his tent to be raised on the spot among the dead, and had his meat brought thither, and his supper prepared there. And all greatly wondered, and said, 'Such a baron ber never bestrode war- horse, nor dealt such blows, nor did such feats of arms; neither has there been on earth such a knight since Rollant and Oliver. And he ate and drank among the dead, and made his bed that night upon the field. The noble ladies of the land also came, some to seek their husbands, and others their fathers, sons, or brothers.
They bore the bodies to their villages, and interred them at the churches; and the clerks and priests of the country were ready, and at the request of their friends, took the bodies that were found, and prepared graves and lay them therein. Many remained on the field, and many had fled in the night. It is indeed evident that the loss of the battle by the English was owing to the wound, which Harold received in the afternoon, and which must have incapacitated him from effective command.
But his men, when deprived of his control, would very naturally be led by their inconsiderate ardour into the pursuit that proved so fatal to them. All the narratives of the battle, however much they vary as to the precise time and manner of Harold's fall, eulogize the generalship and the personal prowess which he displayed, until the fatal arrow struck him.
The skill with which be had posted his army, was proved, both by the slaughter which it cost the Normans to force the position, and also by the desperate rally which some of the Saxons made after the battle in the forest in the rear, in which they cut off. This circumstance is particularly mentioned by William of Poictiers the Conqueror's own chaplain. Indeed, if Harold, or either of his brothers, had survived, the remains of the English army might have formed again in the wood, and could at least have effected an orderly retreat, and prolonged the war.
But both Gurth, and Leofwine, and all the bravest Thanes of Southern England lay dead on Senlac, around their fallen king and the fallen standard of their country. The exact number that perished cm the Saxon side is unknown; but we read that on the side of the victors, out of sixty thousand men who had been engaged, no less than a fourth perished.
So well had the English billmen "plyed the ghastly blow," and so sternly had the Saxon battle-axe cloven Norman casque and mail  The old historian Daniel, justly as well as forcibly remarks,  "Thus was tried, by the great assize of God's judgment in battle, the right of power between the English and Norman nations; a battle the most memorable of all others; and, however miserably lost, yet most nobly fought on the part of England.
The main circumstances, though they seem to vary, are perhaps reconcilable. On the morning after the slaughter they begged and gained permission of the Conqueror to search for the body of their benefactor. The Norman soldiery and camp-followers had stripped and gashed the slain, and the two monks vainly strove to recognize from among the mutilated and gory heaps around them the features of their former king. They sent for Harold's mistress, Edith, surnamed "the Fair" and "the swan-necked," to aid them.
The eye of love proved keener than the eye of gratitude, and the Saxon lady even in that Aceldama knew her Harold. The king's mother now sought the victorious Norman, and begged the dead body of her son. He added, with a sneer, "Harold mounted guard on the coast while he was alive, he may continue his guard now he is dead.
But Harold's mother was urgent in her lamentations and her prayers; the Conqueror relented: like Achilles he gave up the dead body of his fallen foe to a parent's supplications, and the remains of King Harold were deposited with regal honours in Waltham Abbey. Synopsis of Events between the Battle of Hastings a.
Reign of William the Conqueror. Frequent risings of the English against him, which are quelled with merciless rigour. Foundation of the city of Lubeck, whence originated the Hanseatic league. Commencement of the feuds in Italy between the Guelfs and the Ghibelines. Henry II. Richard Coeur de Lion becomes King of England. On the death of King Richard his brother, John, claims and makes himself master of England and Normandy and the other large continental possessions of the early Plantagenet princes.
Philip Augustus asserts the cause of Prince Arthur, John's nephew, against him. Arthur is murdered, but the French king continues the war against John, and conquers from him Normandy, Britanny, Anjou, Maine, Tourain, and Poictiers. The barons, the freeholders, the citizens, and the yeomen of England rise against the tyranny of John and his foreign favourites.
This is the commencement of onr nationality: for our history from this time forth is the history of a national life, then complete, and still in being. All English history before this period is a mere history of elements, of their collisions, and of the processes of their fusion. For upwards of a century after the Conquest, Anglo-Norman and Anglo-Saxon had kept aloof from each other: the one in haughty scorn, the other in sullen abhorrence.
They were two peoples, though living in the same land. It is not until the thirteenth century, the period of the reigns of John and his son and grandson, that we can perceive the existence of any feeling of common nationality among them. But in stud3dng the history of these reigns, we read of the old dissensions no longer. The Saxon no more appears in civil war against the Norman, the Norman no longer scorns the language of the Saxon, or refuses to bear together with him the name of Englishman.
No part of the community think themselves foreigners to another part. They feel that they are all one people, and they have learned to unite their efforts for the common purpose of protecting the rights and promoting the welfare of alL The fortunate loss of the Duchy of Normandy in John's reign, greatly promoted these new feelings.
One language had, in the reign of Henry III. One law, in the eye of which all freemen are equal without distinction of race, was modelled, and steadily enforced, and still continues to form the groundwork of our judicial system. Treaty of Bretigny between England and France. By it Edward III. The treaty is ill kept, and indecisive hostilities continue between the forces of the two countries. Henry V. At this time France was in the most deplorable state of weakness and suffering, from the factions that raged among her nobility, and from the cruel oppressions which the rival nobles practised on the mass of the community.
Henry conquers Normandy. The successor of the murdered duke becomes the active ally of the English. The treaty of Troyes is concluded between Henry V. That Henry should unite his arms to those of King Charles and the Duke of Burgundy, in order to subdue the adherents of Charles, the pretended dauphin: and that these three princes should make no peace or truce with the dauphin, but by the common consent of all three. His son, afterwards Henry VI.
Henry VI. The Duke of Bedford gains the great victory of Verneuil, over the French partizans of the dauphin, and their Scotch auxiliaries. The eyes of all Europe were turned towards this scene; where, it was reasonably supposed, the French were to make their last stand for maintaining the independence of their monarchy and the rights of their sovereign. When, after their victory at Salamis, the generals of the various Greek states voted the prizes for distinguished individual merit, each assigned the first place of excellence to himself, but they all concurred in giving their second votes to Themistocles.
If we were to endeavour, by a similar test, to ascertain which European nation has contributed the most to the progress of European civilization, we should find Italy, Germany, England, and Spain, each claiming the first degree, but each also naming France as clearly next in merit.
Besides the formidable part that she has for nearly three centuries played, as the Bellona of the European commonwealth of states, her influence during all this period over the arts, the literature, the manners and the feelings of mankind, has been such as to make the crisis of her earlier fortunes a point of world-wide interest; and it may be asserted without exaggeration, that the future career of every nation was involved in the result of the struggle, by which the unconscious heroine of France, in the beginning of the fifteenth century, rescued her country from becoming a second Ireland under the yoke of the triumphant English.
Seldom has the extinction of a nation's independence appeared more inevitable than was the case in France, when the English invaders completed their lines round Orleans, four hundred and twenty-two years ago. A series of dreadful defeats had thinned the chivalry of France, and daunted the spirits of her soldiers. A foreign king had been proclaimed in her capital; and foreign armies of the bravest veterans, and led by the ablest captains then known in the world, occupied the fairest portions of her territory.
Worse to her, even than the fierceness and the strength of her foes, were the factions, the vices, and the crimes of her own children. Many more of her nobility, many of her prelates, her magistrates, and rulers, had sworn fealty to the English king. The condition of the peasantry amid the general prevalence of anarchy and brigandage, which were added to the customary devastations of contending armies, was wretched beyond the power of language to describe.
The sense of terror and wretchedness seemed to have extended itself even to the brute creation. There appeared nothing but a horrible face, confusion, poverty, desolation, solitarinesse and feare. The lean and bare labourers in the country did terrific even theeves themselves, who had nothing left them to spoile but the carkasses of these poore miserable creatures, wandering up and down like gbostes drawne out of their graves.
The least farmes and hamlets were fortified by these robbers, English, Bourguegnons and French, every one striving to do his worst: all men-of-war were well agreed to spoile the countryman and merchant. In the autumn of , the English, who were already masters of all France north of the Loire, prepared their forces for the conquest of the southern provinces, which yet adhered to the cause of the dauphin. The city of Orleans, on the banks of that river, was looked upon as the last stronghold of the French national party.
If the English could once obtain possession of it, their victorious progress through the residue of the kingdom, seemed free from any serious obstacle. Accordingly, the Earl of Salisbury, one of the bravest and most experienced of the English generals, who had been trained under Henry V. The city of Orleans itself was on the north side of the Loire, but its suburbs extended far on the southern side, and a strong bridge connected them with the town.
Lord Salisbury rightly judged the capture of the Tourelles to be the most material step towards the reduction of the city itself. Accordingly he directed his principal operations against this post, and after some severe repulses, he carried the Tourelles by storm, on the 23rd of October. The French, however, broke down the arches of the bridge that were nearest to the north bank, and thus rendered a direct assault from the Tourelles upon the city impossible.
But the possession of this post enabled the English to distress the town greatly by a battery of cannon which they planted there, and which commanded some of the principal streets. And even at Orleans both besiegers and besieged seem to have employed their cannons merely as instruments of destruction against their enemy's men and not to have trusted to them as engines of demolition against their enemy's walls and works.
The efficacy of cannon in breaching solid masonry, was taught Europe by the Turks, a few years afterwards, at the memorable siege of Constantinople. The great ambit of the walls of Orleans, and the facilities which the river gave for obtaining succours and supplies, rendered the capture of the town by this process a matter of great difficulty.
Nevertheless, Lord Salisbury and Lord Suffolk, who succeeded him in command of the English, after his death by a cannon-ball, carried on the necessary works with great skill and resolution. Six strongly fortified posts, called bastilles, were formed at certain intervals round the town; and the purpose of the English engineers was to draw strong lines between them. The besieging force also fared hardly for stores and provisions, until relieved by the effects of a brilliant victory which Sir John Fastolfe, one of the best English generals, gained at Rouvrai, near Orleans, a few days after Ash Wednesday, With only sixteen hundred fighting men, Sir John completely defeated an army of French and Scots, four thousand strong, which had been collected for the purpose of aiding the Orleannais, and harassing the besiegers.
After this encounter, which seemed decisively to confirm the superiority of the English in battle over their adversaries, Fastolfe escorted large supplies of stores and food to Suffolk's camp, and the spirits of the English rose to the highest pitch at the prospect of the speedy capture of the city before them; and the consequent subjection of all France beneath their arms. The Regent Bedford refused these terms, and the speedy submission of the city to the English seemed inevitable.
The Dauphin Charles, who was now at Chinon with his remnant of a court, despaired of continuing any longer the struggle for his crown; and was only prevented from abandoning the country, by the more masculine spirits of his mistress and his queen. Yet neither they, nor the boldest of Charles's captains, could have shown him where to find resources for prolonging the war; and least of all, could any human skill have predicted the quarter whence rescue was to come to Orleans and to France.
In the village of Domremy, on the borders of Lorraine, there was a poor peasant of the name of Jacques d'Arc, respected in his station of life, and who had reared a family in virtuous habits and in the practice of the strictest devotion. His eldest daughter was named by her parents Jeannette, but she was called Jeanne by the French, which was Latinized into Johanna, and Anglicised into Joan.
At the time when Joan first attracted attention, she was about eighteen years of age. At the same time she was eminent for piety and purity of soul, and for her compassionate gentleness to the sick and the distressed.
The peasantry in Domremy were principally attached to the house of Orleans and the dauphin; and all the miseries which France endured, were there imputed to the Burgundian faction and their allies, the English, who were seeking to enslave unhappy France. Thus from infancy to girlhood, Joan had heard continually of the woes of the war, and had herself witnessed some of the wretchedness that it caused.
A feeling of intense patriotism grew in her with her growth. The deliverance of France from the English, was the subject of her reveries by day, and her dreams by night. Blended with these aspirations were recollections of the miraculous interpositions of heaven in favour of the oppressed, which she had learned from the legends of her church. Her faith was undoubting; her prayers were fervent.
Her own words describe them best. And she had fasted the day before. And she heard the voice on her right, in the direction of the church; and when she heard the voice she saw also a bright light. Michael and St Margaret and St. Catherine appeared to her.
They were always in a halo of glory; she could see that their heads were crowned with jewels; and sheheard their voices, which were sweet and mild. She did not distinguish their arms or limbs. She heard them more frequently than she saw them; and the usual time when she heard them, was when the church bells were sounding for prayer. And if she was in the woods when she heard them, she could plainly distinguish their voices drawing near to her.
When she thought that she discerned the Heavenly Voices, she knelt down, and bowed herself to the ground. They always spoke soothingly to her. They told her that France would be saved, and that she was to save it. Such were the visions and the voices that moved the spirit of the girl of thirteen; and as she grew older they became more frequent and more clear. At last the tidings of the siege of Orleans reached Domremy. Joan heard her parents and neighbours talk of the sufferings of its population, of the ruin which its capture would bring on their lawful sovereign, and of the distress of the dauphin and his court Joan's heart was sorely troubled at the thought of the fate of Orleans; and her Voices now ordered her to leave her home; and warned her that she was the instrument chosen by Heaven for driving away the English from that city, and for taking the dauphin to be anointed king at Rheims.
At length she informed her parents of her divine mission, and told them that she must go to the Sire de Baudricourt, who commanded at Vaucouleurs, and who was the appointed person to bring her into the presence of the king, whom she was to save. Neither the anger nor the grief of her parents, who said that they would rather see her drowned than exposed to the contamination of the camp, could move her from her purpose.
The inhabitants of Vaucouleurs were completely won over to her side, by the piety and devoutness which she displayed, and by her firm assurance in the truth of her mission. She told them that it was God's will that she should go to the king, and that no one but her could save the kingdom of France. She said that she herself would rather remain with her poor mother, and spin; but the Lord had ordered her forth. The fame of "The Maid," as she was termed, the renown of her holiness, and of her mission, spread far and wide.
Baudricourt sent her with an escort to Chinon, where the Dauphin Charles was dallying away his time. Her Voices had bidden her assume the arms and the apparel of a knight; and the wealthiest inhabitants of Vaucouleurs had vied with each other in equipping her, with war-horse, armour, and sword. On reaching Chinon, she was, after some delay, admitted into the presence of the dauphin.
But she instantly singled him out, and kneeling before him, said, "Most noble dauphin, the King of Heaven announces to you by me, that you shall be anointed and crowned king in the city of Rheims, and that you shall be his vicegerent in France.
The state of public feeling in France was now favourable to an enthusiastic belief in a Divine interposition in favour of the party that had hitherto been unsuccessful and oppressed. The humiliations which had befallen the French royal family and nobility, were looked on as the just judgments of God upon them for their vice and impiety. The misfortunes that had come upon France as a nation, were believed to have been drawn down by national sins.
France in that age was a profoundly religious country. There was ignorance, there was superstition, there was bigotry; but there was Faith—a Faith that itself worked true miracles, even while it believed in unreal ones. At this time also, one of those devotional movements began among the clergy in France, which from time to time occur in national churches, without it being possible for the historian to assign any adequate human cause for their immediate date or extension.
Numberless friars and priests traversed the rural districts and towns of France, preaching to the people that they must seek from Heaven a deliverance from the pillages of the soldiery, and the insolence of the foreign oppressors. This led to the belief that his holy angels and saints were constantly employed in executing his commands and mingling in the affairs of men. Thus, all things favoured the influence which Joan obtained both over friends and foes.
The French nation, as well as the English and the Burgundians, readily admitted that superhuman beings inspired her; the only question was, whether these beings were good or evil angels; whether she brought with her "airs from heaven, or blasts from hell. The dauphin at first feared the injury that might be done to his cause if he laid himself open to the charge of having leagued himself with a sorceress. Every imaginable test, therefore, was resorted to in order to set Joan's orthodoxy and purity beyond suspicion.
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They were confined in cold and starving conditions; many had dysentery or other illnesses, and the weakest were often beaten to death, shot, guillotined, or hanged, while the others were subjected to torture by the Germans. When the inmates were totally exhausted or if they were too ill or too weak to work, they were then transferred to the Revier Krankenrevier , sick barrack or other places for extermination. Early in the war, the program caused the mass execution of political prisoners, especially Soviet military prisoners, who in early outnumbered the Jews in number of deaths even at Auschwitz.
The Nacht und Nebel decree was carried out surreptitiously, but it set the background for orders that would follow and established a "new dimension of fear". It can be surmised from various writings that in the beginning the German public knew only a little of the plans Hitler had to enforce a "New European Order".
Soldiers brought back information, families on rare occasion heard from or about loved ones, and Allied news sources and the BBC were able to get past censorship sporadically. Hesitant if not outright skeptical at first of reports coming in about the atrocities being committed by the Nazis, the Allies' doubts were pushed aside when the French entered the Natzweiler-Struthof camp one of the Nacht und Nebel facilities on 23 November , and discovered a chamber where victims were hung by their wrists from hooks to accommodate the process of pumping poisonous Zyklon-B gas into the room.
Jackson listed the "terrifying" Nacht und Nebel decree with the other crimes committed by the Nazis in his closing address. Hassall, Peter D. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Directive issued by Adolf Hitler on 7 December For the film, see Night and Fog film.
For the 80s Belgian synthpop band, see Nacht und Nebel band. Hitler and Nazi Germany: A History , pp. Nazi Germany — Faith and Annihilation , pp. Hitler's Generals , p. Original citation from the German document holdings: 4 NT, vol.
XI, S. III, S. Gestapo: Instrument of Tyranny , p. Cited in Bracher Justice at Nuremberg , p. The Arms of Krupp, — , p. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved Why Did the Heavens Not Darken? Archived from the original on Retrieved 22 January In: VfZ 29 , S. VII, — Doc. The Routledge Companion to Nazi Germany , p. Escape from Nazi Europe , Penguin Books. Universal Publishers. ISBN The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich , p. Barnett, Correlli, ed. Hitler's Generals.
New York: Grove Press. Bracher, Karl-Dietrich New York: Praeger Publishers. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Conot, Robert E. Justice at Nuremberg. Crankshaw, Edward Gestapo: Instrument of Tyranny. London: Greenhill Books. Nazi Germany Faith and Annihilation. London: Bloomsbury. Gellately, Robert New York: Oxford University Press. Huhle, Rainer.
New York: Basic Books. Kaden, Helma, and Ludwig Nestler, eds. Vol i. Berlin: Dietz Verlag. Kammer, Hilde and Elisabet Bartsch Hamburg: Rowohlt Taschenbuch. Kogon, Eugen . New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. New York: Picador. Manchester, William Mayer, Arno .
Overy, Richard New York: W. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. Originally published in . Sofsky, Wolfgang Translated by William Templer. Spielvogel, Jackson Riccardo Fog li - Collezione [WavPack 2. Escape in the Fog [p] [BluRay] [5. Alice in Chains - Rainier Fog Mahmood Z.
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