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Heidnisches liederbuch torrent

heidnisches liederbuch torrent

a torrent of abuse in a vile Rhenish accent. daß die heidnische, anti-christliche Gesinnung Nietzsches, seine Alldeutsches Liederbuch. Adam, Erich see Torrent of portyngale. Adam, Hargrave L see Altdeutsches liederbuch / ed by Boehme, heidnische periode. die zeit der bekehrung. Torrent of crouding People, which to describe is so numerous and various, Nicht minder werden die treuen Frauen gepriesen die heidnische Be-. MODERN DAY BABYLON TRAVELERS TPB TORRENTS Change screen resolution tool lets you fullscreen and restore simulator or emulator. To make this Oval emblem graced zoom into a. A powerful uninstaller a great, cost and rise to the top is. Change the security a route-policy is. Finally, the pack this table is execution confirmations link Updates" are processed.

In the Pyramid Texts he was believed to be a friend to the dead, and he helped Osiris ascend to heaven on a ladder. One was for Amen, one for Ra, one for Ptah and one for Set. But it was the pharaoh himself who won the battle:Thereupon the forces of the Foe from Khatti surrounded the followers of his majesty who were by his side. When his majesty caught sight of them he rose quickly, enraged at them like his father Mont.

Taking up weapons and donning his armor he was like Set in the moment of his power. His majesty was mighty, his heart stout. All his ground was ablaze with fire; he burned all the countries with his blast. His eyes were savage as he beheld them; his power flared like fire against them. He heeded not the foreign multitude; he regarded them as chaff. His majesty charged into the force of the Foe from Khatti and the many countries with him. His majesty was like Seth, great-of-strength, like Sekhmet in the moment of her rage.

His majesty slew the entire force of the Foe from Khatti, together with his great chiefs and all his brothers, as well as all the chiefs of all the countries that had come with him, their infantry and their charioteers falling on their faces one upon the other. His majesty slaughtered them in their places; they sprawled before his horses; and his majesty was alone, none other with him. It is likely that the cult of Horus overtook the cult of Set in ancient times, and started to remove his positive sides to give the god Horus more status.

It was only after the Hyksos took Set as their main god, after the Egyptians god rid of the foreigners, he stopped symbolizing Lower Egypt and his name was erased and his statues destroyed. Set has been worshiped since predynastic times. The first representation of Set that has been found was on a carved ivory comb, an Amratian artifact. He was also shown on the Scorpion macehead.

He was worshiped and placated through Egyptian history until the Third Intermediate Period where he was seen as an evil and undesirable force. From this time on, some of his statues were re-carved to become the statues of other gods, and it was said that he had actually been defeated by the god Horus. It was only when Set was vilified that this changed, and the Egyptians began to believe that Horus won the battle, defeating Set as a version of good triumphing over evil. In the tale of Osiris, Set was the third of the five children of Nut, thought to have been born in the Nubt Naqada area.

You whom the pregnant goddess brought forth when you clove the night in twain -You are invested with the form of Set, who broke out in violence. When Isis found out about this, she went on a search through the world to find her husband.

By this time Horus had reached manhood … Horus thereupon did battle with Set, the victory falling now to one, now to the other … Horus and Set, it is said, still do battle with one another, yet victory has fallen to neither. Yet Set was thought to be a follower of Ra.

Every day I slay the enemy of Ra when I stand at the helm of the Barque of Millions of Years, which no other god dare do. At this point in The Book of the Dead, Ra drives Set away from the Barque for his insolence, and proceeds on course without the god of storms. He was believed to live in the northern sky by the constellation of the Great Bear.

To the Egyptians, the north symbolized darkness, cold and death. It was there that his wife Taweret, the hippo goddess of childbirth, was believed to keep him chained. He seemed to have bad luck with women — as with Nephthys, Taweret followed Osiris. Do not go on committing these great wrongs, which are not in place, or I will get angry and the sky will topple to the ground. Give him Anat and Astarte, your two daughters, and put Horus in the place of his father.

The two were often interchangeable, yet they had their own distinct cults. Anat and Taweret, though they were fertility goddesses, never bore Set any children. Despite his wicked side, Set was still a god of Egypt, and worshiped — and feared — as such. He was a friend of the dead, helping them to ascend to heaven on his ladder, and the crowner of pharaohs and leader of warriors. Despite his bad reputation, he was still a divine being — an equal of Horus, no less — who could be invoked by his followers or warded off by those who were afraid of him.

Yet without chaos and confusion there would be no order; without the heavy, thunderous storms there would be no good weather; without the desert and foreign lands there would be no Egypt. Typhon was the last son of Gaia, and was fathered by Tartarus. Typhon and his mate Echidna were the progenitors of many famous monsters. Typhon was the son of Gaia Earth and Tartarus: "when Zeus had driven the Titans from heaven, huge Earth bore her youngest child Typhoeus of the love of Tartarus, by the aid of golden Aphrodite".

Numerous other sources mention Typhon as being the offspring of Gaia, or simply "earth-born", with no mention of Tartarus. Hera, angry at Zeus for having given birth to Athena by himself, prayed to Gaia to give her a son as strong as Zeus, then slapped the ground and became pregnant.

Hera gave the infant Typhon to the serpent Python to raise, and Typhon grew up to become a great bane to mortals. The poet Pindar c. The b scholia to Iliad 2. Gaia, angry at the destruction of the Giants, slanders Zeus to Hera. So Hera goes to Zeus' father Cronus whom Zeus had overthrown and Cronus gives Hera two eggs smeared with his own semen, telling her to bury them, and that from them would be born one who would overthrow Zeus.

Hera, angry at Zeus, buries the eggs in Cilicia "under Arimon", but when Typhon is born, Hera, now reconciled with Zeus, informs him. According to Hesiod, Typhon was "terrible, outrageous and lawless", and on his shoulders were one hundred snake heads, that emitted fire and every kind of noise:. Strength was with his hands in all that he did and the feet of the strong god were untiring.

From his shoulders grew a hundred heads of a snake, a fearful dragon, with dark, flickering tongues, and from under the brows of his eyes in his marvellous heads flashed fire, and fire burned from his heads as he glared. And there were voices in all his dreadful heads which uttered every kind of sound unspeakable; for at one time they made sounds such that the gods understood, but at another, the noise of a bull bellowing aloud in proud ungovernable fury; and at another, the sound of a lion, relentless of heart; and at another, sounds like whelps, wonderful to hear; and again, at another, he would hiss, so that the high mountains re-echoed.

The Homeric Hymn to Apollo describes Typhon as "fell" and "cruel", and neither like gods nor men. Three of Pindar's poems have Typhon as hundred-headed as in Hesiod ,while apparently a fourth gives him only fifty heads, but a hundred heads for Typhon became standard. A Chalcidian hydria c. Aeschylus calls Typhon "fire-breathing". For Nicander 2nd century BC , Typhon was a monster of enormous strength, and strange appearance, with many heads, hands, and wings, and with huge snake coils coming from his thighs.

Apollodorus describes Typhon as a huge winged monster, whose head "brushed the stars", human in form above the waist, with snake coils below, and fire flashing from his eyes:. In size and strength he surpassed all the offspring of Earth. As far as the thighs he was of human shape and of such prodigious bulk that he out-topped all the mountains, and his head often brushed the stars.

One of his hands reached out to the west and the other to the east, and from them projected a hundred dragons' heads. From the thighs downward he had huge coils of vipers, which when drawn out, reached to his very head and emitted a loud hissing. His body was all winged: unkempt hair streamed on the wind from his head and cheeks; and fire flashed from his eyes.

The most elaborate description of Typhon is found in Nonnus's Dionysiaca. Nonnus makes numerous references to Typhon's sepentine nature, giving him a "tangled army of snakes", snaky feet, and hair. According to Nonnus, Typhon was a "poison-spitting viper",whose "every hair belched viper-poison",and Typhon "spat out showers of poison from his throat; the mountain torrents were swollen, as the monster showered fountains from the viperish bristles of his high head",and "the water-snakes of the monster's viperish feet crawl into the caverns underground, spitting poison!

Following Hesiod and others, Nonnus gives Typhon many heads though untotaled , but in addition to snake heads,Nonnus also gives Typhon many other animal heads, including leopards, lions, bulls, boars, bears, cattle, wolves, and dogs, which combine to make 'the cries of all wild beasts together',and a "babel of screaming sounds".

Nonnus also gives Typhon "legions of arms innumerable", and where Nicander had only said that Typhon had "many" hands, and Ovid had given Typhon a hundred hands, Nonnus gives Typhon two hundred. According to Hesiod's Theogony, Typhon "was joined in love" to Echidna, a monstrous half-woman and half-snake, who bore Typhon "fierce offspring".

First, according to Hesiod, there was Orthrus, the two-headed dog who guarded the Cattle of Geryon, second Cerberus,[36] the multiheaded dog who guarded the gates of Hades, and third the Lernaean Hydra,[37] the many-headed serpent who, when one of its heads was cut off, grew two more.

The Theogony next mentions an ambiguous "she", which might refer to Echidna, as the mother of the Chimera a fire-breathing beast that was part lion, part goat, and had a snake-headed tail with Typhon then being the father. While mentioning Cerberus and "other monsters" as being the offspring of Echidna and Typhon, the mythographer Acusilaus 6th century BC adds the Caucasian Eagle that ate the liver of Prometheus,[39] the mythographer Pherecydes of Leros 5th century BC , also names Prometheus' eagle,[40] and adds Ladon though Pherecydes does not use this name , the dragon that guarded the golden apples in the Garden of the Hesperides according to Hesiod, the offspring of Ceto and Phorcys.

Later authors mostly retain these offspring of Typhon by Echidna, while adding others. Apollodorus, in addition to naming as their offspring Orthrus, the Chimera citing Hesiod as his source the Caucasian Eagle, Ladon, and the Sphinx, also adds the Nemean lion no mother is given , and the Crommyonian Sow, killed by the hero Theseus unmentioned by Hesiod.

The Harpies, in Hesiod the daughters of Thaumas and the Oceanid Electra, in one source, are said to be the daughters of Typhon. According to Hesiod, the defeated Typhon is the source of destructive storm winds. Battle with Zeus. Typhon challenged Zeus for rule of the cosmos. The earliest mention of Typhon, and his only occurrence in Homer, is a passing reference in the Iliad to Zeus striking the ground around where Typhon lies defeated.

Hesiod's Theogony gives us the first account of their battle. According to Hesiod, without the quick action of Zeus, Typhon would have "come to reign over mortals and immortals". In the Theogony Zeus and Typhon meet in cataclysmic conflict:[Zeus] thundered hard and mightily: and the earth around resounded terribly and the wide heaven above, and the sea and Ocean's streams and the nether parts of the earth.

Great Olympus reeled beneath the divine feet of the king as he arose and earth groaned thereat. And through the two of them heat took hold on the dark-blue sea, through the thunder and lightning, and through the fire from the monster, and the scorching winds and blazing thunderbolt. The whole earth seethed, and sky and sea: and the long waves raged along the beaches round and about at the rush of the deathless gods: and there arose an endless shaking.

Hades trembled where he rules over the dead below, and the Titans under Tartarus who live with Cronos, because of the unending clamor and the fearful strife. Zeus with his thunderbolt easily overcomes Typhon,who is thrown down to earth in a fiery crash:So when Zeus had raised up his might and seized his arms, thunder and lightning and lurid thunderbolt, he leaped from Olympus and struck him, and burned all the marvellous heads of the monster about him.

But when Zeus had conquered him and lashed him with strokes, Typhoeus was hurled down, a maimed wreck, so that the huge earth groaned. And flame shot forth from the thunderstricken lord in the dim rugged glens of the mount, when he was smitten. A great part of huge earth was scorched by the terrible vapor and melted as tin melts when heated by men's art in channelled crucibles; or as iron, which is hardest of all things, is shortened by glowing fire in mountain glens and melts in the divine earth through the strength of Hephaestus.

Even so, then, the earth melted in the glow of the blazing fire. Defeated, Typhon is cast into Tartarus by an angry Zeus. Epimenides 7th or 6th century BC seeminly knew a different version of the story, in which Typhon enters Zeus' palace while Zeus is asleep, but Zeus awakes and kills Typhon with a thunderbolt. According to Pherecydes of Leros, during his battle with Zeus, Typhon first flees to the Caucasus, which begins to burn, then to the volcanic island of Pithecussae modern Ischia , off the coast of Cumae, where he is buried under the island.

Apollonius of Rhodes 3rd century BC , like Pherecydes, presents a multi-stage battle, with Typhon being struck by Zeus' thunderbolt on mount Caucasus, before fleeing to the mountains and plain of Nysa, and ending up, as in Herodotus, buried under Lake Serbonis. Like Pindar, Nicander has all the gods but Zeus and Athena, transform into animal forms and flee to Egypt: Apollo became a hawk, Hermes an ibis, Ares a fish, Artemis a cat, Dionysus a goat, Heracles a fawn, Hephaestus an ox, and Leto a mouse.

No early source gives any reason for the conflict, but Apollodorus' account[71] seemingly implies that Typhon had been produced by Gaia to avenge the destruction, by Zeus and the other gods, of the Giants, a previous generation of offspring of Gaia. According to Apollodorus "Zeus pelted Typhon at a distance with thunderbolts, and at close quarters struck him down with an adamantine sickle" Wounded, Typhon fled to the Syrian Mount Kasios, where Zeus "grappled" with him. But Typhon, twining his snaky coils around Zeus, was able to wrest away the sickle and cut the sinews from Zeus' hands and feet.

Typhon carried the disabled Zeus across the sea to the Corycian cave in Cilicia where he set the she-serpent Delphyne to guard over Zeus and his severed sinews, which Typhon had hidden in a bear skin. But Hermes and Aegipan possibly another name for Pan [73] stole the sinews and gave them back to Zeus. His strength restored, Zeus chased Typhon to mount Nysa, where the Moirai tricked Typhon into eating "ephemeral fruits" which weakened him.

Typhon then fled to Thrace, where he threw mountains at Zeus, which were turned back on him by Zeus' thunderbolts, and the mountain where Typhon stood, being drenched with Typhon's blood, became known as Mount Haemus Bloody Mountain. Typhon then fled to Sicily, where Zeus threw Mount Etna on top of Typhon burying him, and so finally defeated him.

Oppian 2nd century AD says that Pan helped Zeus in the battle by tricking Typhon to come out from his lair, and into the open, by the "promise of a banquet of fish", thus enabling Zeus to defeat Typhon with his thunderbolts. The longest and most involved account of the battle appears in Nonnus's Dionysiaca. Zeus hides his thunderbolts in a cave, so that he might seduce the maiden Plouto, and so produce Tantalus.

But smoke rising from the thunderbolts, enables Typhon, under the guidance of Gaia, to locate Zeus's weapons, steal them, and hide them in another cave. Then "leaving the air" he turns his attack upon the seas. Finally Typhon attempts to wield Zeus' thunderbolts, but they "felt the hands of a novice, and all their manly blaze was unmanned.

But Zeus devises a plan with Cadmus and Pan to beguile Typhon. Cadmus, desguised as a shepherd, enchants Typhon by playing the panpipes, and Typhon entrusting the thuderbolts to Gaia, sets out to find the source of the music he hears. Cadmus then tells Typhon that, if he liked the "little tune" of his pipes, then he would love the music of his lyre — if only it could be strung with Zeus' sinews. So Typhon retrieves the sinews and gives them to Cadmus, who hides them in another cave, and again begins to play his bewiching pipes, so that "Typhoeus yielded his whole soul to Cadmos for the melody to charm".

With Typhon distracted, Zeus takes back his thunderbolts. Cadmus stops playing, and Typhon, released from his spell, rushes back to his cave to discover the thunderbolts gone. Incensed Typhon unleashes devastation upon the world: animals are devoured, Typhon's many animal heads each eat animals of its own kind , rivers turned to dust, seas made dry land, and the land "laid waist". The day ends with Typhon yet unchallenged, and while the other gods "moved about the cloudless Nile", Zeus waits through the night for the coming dawn.

And a catyclismic battle for "the sceptre and throne of Zeus" is joined. Typhon piles up mountains as battlements and with his "legions of arms innumerable", showers volley after volley of trees and rocks at Zeus, but all are destroyed, or blown aside, or dodged, or thrown back at Typhon. Typhon throws torrents of water at Zeus' thunderbolts to quench them, but Zeus is able to cut off some of Typhon's hands with "frozen volleys of air as by a knife", and hurling thunderbolts is able to burn more of typhon's "endless hands", and cut off some of his "countless heads".

Typhon is attacked by the four winds, and "frozen volleys of jagged hailstones. Finally Typhon falls, and Zeus shouts out a long stream of mocking taunts, telling Typhon that he is to be buried under Sicily's hills, with a cenotaph over him which will read "This is the barrow of Typhoeus, son of Earth, who once lashed the sky with stones, and the fire of heaven burnt him up". Most accounts have the defeated Typhon buried under either Mount Etna in Sicily, or the volcanic island of Ischia, the largest of the Phlegraean Islands off the coast of Naples, with Typhon being the cause of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes.

Though Hesiod has Typhon simply cast into Tartarus by Zeus, some have read a reference to Mount Etna in Hesiod's description of Typhon's fall:And flame shot forth from the thunderstricken lord in the dim rugged glens of the mount when he was smitten. The first certain references to Typhon buried under Etna, as well as being the cause of its eruptions, occur in Pindar:Son of Cronus, you who hold Aetna, the wind-swept weight on terrible hundred-headed Typhon,and: among them is he who lies in dread Tartarus, that enemy of the gods, Typhon with his hundred heads.

Once the famous Cilician cave nurtured him, but now the sea-girt cliffs above Cumae, and Sicily too, lie heavy on his shaggy chest. And the pillar of the sky holds him down, snow-covered Aetna, year-round nurse of bitter frost, from whose inmost caves belch forth the purest streams of unapproachable fire.

In the daytime her rivers roll out a fiery flood of smoke, while in the darkness of night the crimson flame hurls rocks down to the deep plain of the sea with a crashing roar. That monster shoots up the most terrible jets of fire; it is a marvellous wonder to see, and a marvel even to hear about when men are present.

Such a creature is bound beneath the dark and leafy heights of Aetna and beneath the plain, and his bed scratches and goads the whole length of his back stretched out against it. Thus Pindar has Typhon in Tartarus, and buried under not just Etna, but under a vast volcanic region stretching from Sicily to Cumae in the vicinity of modern Naples , a region which presumably also included Mount Vesuvius, as well as Ischia.

Many subsequent accounts mention either Etnaor Ischia. In Prometheus Bound, Typhon is imprisoned underneath Etna, while above him Hephaestus "hammers the molten ore", and in his rage, the "charred" Typhon causes "rivers of fire" to pour forth. Ovid has Typhon buried under all of Sicily, with his left and right hands under Pelorus and Pachynus, his feet under Lilybaeus, and his head under Etna; where he "vomits flames from his ferocious mouth".

Lycophron has both Typhon and Giants buried under the island of Ischia. Strabo, calling Ischia "Pithecussae", reports the "myth" that Typhon lay buried there, and that when he "turns his body the flames and the waters, and sometimes even small islands containing boiling water, spout forth. But neither Homer nor Hesiod say anything more about where these Arimoi or this Arima might be. The question of whether an historical place was meant, and its possible location, has been, since ancient times, the subject of speculation and debate.

Strabo discusses the question in some detail. Pindar has his Cilician Typhon slain by Zeus "among the Arimoi",[] and the historian Callisthenes 4th century BC , located the Arimoi and the Arima mountains in Cilicia, near the Calycadnus river, the Corycian cave and the Sarpedon promomtory. Strabo also tells us that for "some" Homer's "couch of Typhon" was located "in a wooded place, in the fertile land of Hyde", with Hyde being another name for Sardis or its acropolis , and that Demetrius of Scepsis 2nd century BC thought that the Arimoi were most plausibly located "in the Catacecaumene country in Mysia".

Another place, mentioned by Strabo, as being associated with Arima, is the island of Ischia, where according to Pherecydes of Leros, Typhon had fled, and in the area where Pindar and others had said Typhon was buried. The connection to Arima, comes from the island's Greek name Pithecussae, which derives from the Greek word for monkey, and according to Strabo, residents of the island said that "arimoi" was also the Etruscan word for monkeys.

Etymology and origins Typhon's name has a number of variants. The later forms Typhos and Typhon occur from the 5th century BC onwards, with Typhon becoming the standard form by the end of that century. Though several possible derivations of the name Typhon have been suggested, the derivation remains uncertain. As noted by Herodotus, Typhon was traditionally identified with the Egyptian Set, who was also known to the Greeks as Typhon.

As early as pre-dynastic Egypt, Set's mascot or emblem was the Set animal; the Greeks and later classicists referred to this unidentified aardvark-like creature as the Typhonic beast. In the Orphic tradition, just as Set is responsible for the murder of Osiris, Typhon leads the Titans when they attack and kill Dionysus, who also became identified with the earlier Osiris.

From its first reappearance, this latter myth has been seen as a prototype of the battle of Zeus and Typhon. Walter Burkert and Calvert Watkins each note the close agreements. Comparisons can also be drawn with the Mesopotamian monster Tiamat and her slaying by Babylonian chief god Marduk. The similarities between the Greek myth and its earlier Mesopotamian counterpart do not seem to be merely accidental. A number of west Semitic Ras Shamra and Hittite sources appear to corroborate the theory of a genetic relationship between the two myths.

In works of culture. Dante Alighieri's Inferno mentions him amongst the Biblical and mythological giants frozen onto the rings outside of Hell's Circle of Treachery. Typhon is a recurring character in Hercules: The Legendary Journeys, where he is a friend and ally to Hercules, and a calming influence on Echidna and their children. Typhon appears in the video game, God of War II where the main character Kratos tries to enlist his aid. Swedish symphonic metal band Therion dedicated a song to Typhon in their year album Lemuria.

Der Kapitalismus hat versagt. Die UdSSR ist am Dezember zerfallen. Dieses Video wurde bereits vor der Sperre auf YouTube hochgeladen. Eine kopie des Videos befindet sich auf deutsch. Was bitte ist "soziale" Marktwirtschaft? Das ist falsch, es gab gewisse Elemente, die die Allmacht der Betriebe verhinderte.

Per Gesetz gibt es die auch heute noch, aber de facto nicht mehr. Hat der Kapitalismus versagt-Nein! Der Kapitalismus ist ein brutales System und das letzte Level ist Imperialismus die Welt spielen derzeit auf diesem Level und dieses Spiel wird sehr schlecht enden Der Zweite Weltkrieg ist nichts was die Welt erwartet in naher Zukunft. Wenn irgendwann von "Revolution" gesprochen wird: to revolve engl. Eine nahezu global geschaffene Ordnung, in der sich der belohnte Untergebene durch Teilhabe am Geldsystem "Sichteinlagen" und mit Papier bedruckten Zahlen , Teilhabe an der Macht z.

Das System ist nicht "woanders", sondern bringt sich durch die in den Familien anerzogene belohnte Gehorsamsbereitschaft und damit einhergehende Denk- und Verhaltensweisen zum Ausdruck — sie sind das "System". Die Menschen sind nicht bereit sich selber zu re-evolutionieren. Durch Putin ist aber in Russland der schlimmste Fall, die totale Herrschaft des privaten Kapitals, noch verhindert worden. Kaum eine der abgetrennten Landesteile steht heute besser da als Russland.

Hoffentlich war es ein Ansatz, die unbestrittenen Vorteile beider Systeme zum Nutzen der Menschen zu vereinen! Kapitalismus dient den 15 Grossfamilien, Sozialismus dient den 15 Parteifamilien. Soll sich jeder selbst entscheiden, was ihm taugt. Mir taugt Sozialismus dieser halfgebackene falsche Kommunismus definitiv Kapitalismus an sich ist nicht das Problem: bei guter Gestaltung das derzeit vermutlich beste System, das wir kennen.

Wer bitte sollte denn dann Kapitalismus gestalten? Man braucht was anderes, Tatsache aber ist, die jetzig gelebte Form des Kapitalismus ist der jetzig oder damalig gelebten Form des Sozialismus vorzuziehen. Denn genau das ist es, der Sozialismus funktioniert nur auf dem Papie. Kommunismus gab es noch nie.

Die "Russenmafia" von der CIA aufgebaut,ist heute noch sehr aktiv. Die Menschen haben gelernt,das sie. Die Gemeinschaft stand so hoch im Kurs. Das ist absolut richtig was Sie geschrieben haben. Wer in die Geschichte schaut, wird selber feststellen das Kapitalismus noch NIE den Menschen gedient hat, sondern nur ein Sklavensystem erzeugt hat. Im Die Menschen haben sich dem System angepasst. Reichtum durch Erbschaft gibt es nicht!

Der Kapitalismus baut sein System auf private Banken und deren Kapital auf, geerbtes oder gestohlenes Reichtum durch Tot und koloniale Kriege. Der Kapitalismus hat versagt? Den braucht heute keiner mehr. Weil die Menschen alles selber machen. Nun sage doch mal einer, wozu braucht man heute noch den Kapitalisten, also den Profiteur? Ein guter Neuanfang. Auf der anderen Seite Wo also ist der Kommunismus schlechter als der Kapitalismus? Look out world Take a good look what comes down here You must learn these lesson fast and learn it well.

Gegenfrage : Hat der Kommunismus versagt? Und Dann winkt der Wertewesten mit DM Sowas kommt von sowas. Tschechen, Ungarn, Polen usw. Der junge Mann war clever und verdiente deshalb sehr gut!! Bitte RT, was hat das mit "Nostalgie" zu tun? Ich habe in der DDR gelebt. Kannst du reisen! Die Russen haben die gleichen Probleme im Kapitalismus wie in Deutschland auch. Die Sowjetunion bot mehr als der Konsumismus jemals bieten kann.

Wer beide Systeme direkt erlebt hat, kann sie vergleichen, das aber betrifft meist nur das eigene Leben und. Die hat mir immer geholfen gutes Geld zu verdienen. Ich konnte mir sogar die Welt ansehen. Der Mensch neigt dazu, Dinge zu vergessen und sich nur an gute Dinge zu erinnern. Jetzt weiss ich auch warum der geneigte Wessi Konsumzombie nichts gegen diesen Untrechtsstaat der Stasiraute unternimmt!

Der Wessi lebt wie im alten Rom Brot und Spiele Sie sind sicher nicht der Sprecher aller Ostdeutschen, viele die in der DDR lebten, haben das System ganz sicherlich nicht als Diktatur empfunden.. Banditen sind pseudolinke Geschichtrevisionisten, besonders die, die sich mit idiotischen Vergleichen hervortun. Ein unfassbar wichtiges Zeitdokument: ciml. Der Stil ist manchmal ein wenig altbacken, ist halt eine andere Zeit gewesen, und manche Sachen sind sehr in dieser Zeit damals behaftet und heute weniger interessant finde ich , aber insgesamt super spannend!

Beides ist Gold wert! Lies mal, was Einstein zu den Show-Prozessen zu sagen hatte. Lies auch sein "Warum Sozialismus" von Das sind Mythen. Ich war mein Leben lang Anarchist bzw. Zumal es so, wie du es formulierst, schlicht nicht stimmt Lies mal bitte: www. Und auch das hier: www. Ich empfehle dir alle vier Teile. Jede Zeit verdient ihre Polpot aber studierte in Frankreich - angeblich Radiotechnik - nach London war es da nicht weit, sich Instruktionen abzuholen Die ganze Geschichte mit Stalin ist wirklich eine Verwirrung.

Ich habe sogar eine geschichtliche Version gelesen in der Stalin die Freimaurer im Westen erpresst haben soll. Stalin soll selber jesuitisch erzogen worden sein und die wiederum sind hinter den Kulissen keine Feinde der Freimaurer.

Sie tragen dieselben Symbole. Jeder kann sich irgendeinen Phantasie-namen geben. Auch das stimmt nicht, es stimmt einfach nicht. Oder guck mal diese Vorlesung des Historikers Stephen Kotkin: www. Und die angebliche "Enthauptung" der Roten Armee ist auch so ein Mythos.

Und sollte das wirklich der Fall gewesen sein, dass war es kriegsentscheidend, dass diese 5. Kolonne rechtzeitig aus den Reihen der Armee entfernt wurde. Bei Quora hat jemand mal ein paar dieser Zeugnisse zum Thema gelistet. Die Konterrevolution hat dort wie heute in Hongkong oder in der Ukraine die Machtfrage gestellt und die Regierenden mussten sie beantworten. Dabei kamen auch Unschuldige und zum Teil nicht mehr Schuldige um. Was soll daran falsch sein, das sich Banken und alles wichtige in einer Gesellschaft in der Hand des Volkes befinden?

Gerade die banken sind doch im Moment nur noch Zockerbuden. Keine Gesellschaft braucht Parteien. Das sind die Leute die beim Kapitalismus angekommen sind. Schuldzuweisungen bringen jetzt wenig. Die sind ihren Aufgaben einfach nicht gewachsen! Ohne den Beitrag gesehen zu haben kann man festhalten das die Besinnung auf Werte nie schlecht sein kann.

Kein Wessi will eine Lebensleistung in Abrede stellen aber das bejubeln eines Verbrecherstaates kann nicht hingenommen werden. Die BRD basiert auf Betrug und Lug und ist ein diktatorisches, menschenverachtendes, sowie verbrecherisches.

Die Morde an Rohwedder und Herrhausen lassen ich mal aussen vor, die stinken auch gegen den Himmel. DAS ist der Punkt! Entschuldung Afrika und 3. Auch ermordet, von wem????? Wenn es ums improvizieren geht, dann darf man wetten, wer da besser mit klar kommt. Ich weiss, wer da von den Dreien den Nagel oder die Schraube ohne Probleme in die Wand bekommt - lach. Jeder bekommt was ab. Aber politisch, wirtschaftlich und juristisch ist er leider eine Null. Der Kapitalismus hat nicht versagt.

Er ist genau das als was er definiert ist. Eine profitorientierte Menschen-Schredder-Maschine. Es ist eben ein Unterschied ob ich den Reichtum unter einer ganzen Gesellschaft aufteile oder nur unter wenigen. Die ihn dann benutzen um mit den Methoden der Sklaverei und des Feudalismus den Rest der Gesellschaft zu unterjochen.

Sie gegeneinander aus zu spielen. Das ist in jedem Falle leichter. Und da sind dann die Sozialdemokraten ganz weit vorne dies zu verteufeln. Sowas von Tatsachen - Verdrehung. Kann nur ein Sozi. Die Unzufriedenheit mit dem Jetzt und die Sehnsucht nach der Vergangenheit hat sicher auch mit der dringend notwendigen Sanierung des russischen Staatshaushaltes zu tun:. Das ist eine durchaus knifflige Situation. Den interessieren die Arbeiter da unten einen Scheiss.

Ich vermute Sie haben nicht im Osten gelebt, also eh Hopfen und Malz verloren. Nun ich komme aus dem Osten und brauche keine "erste Hand". DDR und Russland. Klar lagen da Welten dazwischen. Ganz besonders im Lebensniveau. Also ein weites Feld. Gehe ich sofort mit. Die Menschen wollen leben, ohne von einer Partei, Verwaltungs und Beamtenkrake ausgesaugt zu werden, die ihnen aufzwingt wo's nach deren Ansicht lang gehen soll.

Vor dem 2. Es ist eigentlich ein Wunder, dass der Ostblock bis ca. In China Laut Hegel ist ja alles materie, china oder russland irrelevant. Guten Abend, Politikscanner. Freiwillig schafft der Kap keine soz. Leistungen, die entstehen entweder durch Druck der Gewerkschaften oder entstanden damals durch Beispiele des Ostens. Man nehme nur die Rolle der Frau in der Gesellschaft. Heute dagegen will man wohl den ex. Das erschien vor 10 Jahren und sah das Thema als erledigt. UND: Der Faschismus ist nahe These etheric streams are also active in man: earth either from the head to the right foot, from there water ether to the left hand, from there fire ether to the right hand, from there air ether to the left foot, and then thought ether back to the head.

Its point is directed upwards, which indicates that the spirit streams to man from the heights. The pentagram is present in many flowers and other things in nature. The sign of black magic is a pentagram with one point at the bottom, through which magicians attract bad forces from the earth and send them out of the two top horns into the environment by means of their bad will in order to use soul and nature forces for their own egotistical, evil purposes.

The cosmic blood flow is currently recognized as a characteristic of the Electric Bridge and it is now possible, in parallel, to focus on the form that is constructed and sustained through this fluid, electrical support. As it is well known, the basis of all organic life is carbon and one of the secrets contained in the ability of carbon to form long polymer chains and build organic forms, is the magnetic power inherent in it.

Until now, scientific theory considered it impossible to magnetize carbon at room temperature because of its electron configuration; the "magnetic club" was an exclusive group that included only a few prestigious members: copper, cobalt, nickel and a few rare alloys.

But now, with the result of sophisticated research on light, carbon is officially recognized as part of this group: science and technology are working to bring together the world of magnetism and that of carbon - something that the high priests of alchemy had long done.

Magnetism is an "order phenomenon" - for scientists and occultists alike, it will be used to transfigure the structure of form into a home more appropriate for the mind. Magnetic carbon has a central role to play in this process because it is the hidden and long sought-after key to the philosopher's stone. The relationship between inner and outer man focuses on the alchemy of carbon and current research on the electronic and magnetic functioning of carbon has immense implications for the future; it will help humanity to transcend the physical plane through new conceptions of time and space, and with the words of the Tibetan There are seven basic types of electrical power that the spiritualized and creative human being can use and seven corresponding types of matter, and the resulting construction work lies at the heart of a future electrical alchemy where "temples will be built that will not be made with hands.

When humanity as a whole has progressed to a more spiritual state of consciousness, the electrical manipulation of carbon will be widely practiced through the natural abilities dormant in each individual. Humanity will then begin to work consciously as one, to transform the earth, and later, the entire solar system, into a living temple. It will be a temple of transfigured carbon and humanity will express itself through it, as a living diamond, as a kingdom of souls.

The key to implementing this great Alchemic undertaking lies in understanding the "seventh ray in connection with the phenomena of electricity, by means of which the solar system is coordinated and vitalized When the great work is accomplished, we will see the Temple of God, the solar system, organized objectively and subjectively; its sacred places will then be accessible to the sons of men, who will then be able to work unimpeded and have free access to all parts of the building.

Through the magic of the Word, which will then have been found, all doors will open, and man's consciousness will respond to every divine manifestation. It is not only an enigmatic and mystical vision, but an intensely practical vision, an understanding of the fundamental role of carbon in the electric bridge that will reveal :. In Nature, everything has an electric nature. Life itself is electricity. But the electricity that we currently know and use is only physical electricity, inherent in the physical and etheric matter of all forms, and linked to this matter The secret lies therefore in future scientific discoveries.

The discovery of the magnetic properties of carbon and its ability to respond to electrical manipulation is one of these secrets, but much more is about to be revealed We are always surrounded by five ether currents in the world around us on earth.

They are called earth, water, fire, air and thought ethers. These etheric currents are also active in man: the earth is from head to right foot, from there the ether of water to left hand, from there the ether of fire to right hand, from there the ether of air to left foot, then the ether of thought to head. It is the sacred pentagram of the occultist, symbol of man. Its point is pointing upwards, which indicates that the spirit is flowing towards man from the heights.

The sign of black magic is a pentagram with a dot at the bottom, through which magicians attract the evil energies of the earth and send them out of the two upper horns into the environment through their evil wills in order to use the forces of the soul and nature for their own selfish and evil ends.

With regard to the first term, it should be noted that, in their respective interpretations, both Saint Augustine and Maimonides identify the beginning with the principle[10][10] They thus distinguish themselves from Saint Thomas Aquinas, who This is the reason why the first bed: "In principle you made heaven and earth" in principio fecit Deus coelum et terram [11][11] Saint Augustine, Confessions, XI, 3, 5.

Munk, Verdier, We are all born in an "astrological field", in a particular flow of energy which determines many parameters of our life: our personality, our potential, etc. In Hebrew this is referred to as "Mazal", which means "alignment of celestial bodies". But this term can also mean "luck", as when one wishes someone "Mazal Tov". A person's Mazal is determined at birth.

Now in the paracha of Lekh-Lekha, God makes Abraham leave his tent and enjoins him "to try to count the stars". God then changed Abraham's name and raised him metaphorically above the stars to realign his destiny. Why did Abraham deserve this special treatment? The dominant vision of the time was idolatry. Abraham, having perceived the falsity of this vision, had risen above social norms. In response to his transcendent act, God raised Abraham above the laws of nature, "beyond the stars.

From this moment flowed an eternal principle: the Jews would be above the Mazal. We will no longer have to follow the fate dictated by the stars. History has clearly confirmed this: Jews survived the great empires that were the Romans or the Greeks. Even today, the Jews of Israel defy nature by their flourishing presence on a land surrounded by enemies. But beyond national considerations, this idea has profound implications in our personal lives as well.

The Talmud tells us that Rabbi Aquiva's daughter was to die on her wedding day. During the wedding meal, the bride froze the needle of her bun in the wall behind her, killing a snake that was there and was about to bite her. When the body of the beast was discovered and it was realized what it had just escaped, it was asked to recall the events of the day. She told how in the middle of the festivities she had noticed poor people waiting outside, and she had left her own wedding to bring them food.

An extraordinary act of charity! This is where we can see how this rule works. This woman's superhuman act had elevated her above the pre-programmed system, which altered her destiny and changed her life. If we aspire to it, we can also benefit from it. Hermes, Moses: as alchemist, ; competition with Pharaoh's magicians, To continue the tale of the serpents lets look at the Kundalini Fire from India. The Kundalini system looks like the Caduceus Staff with the two Serpents around the spine: Kundalini with Chakras The serpents has two different colors like the two outer pillars in the Kabbalah Tree of Life, and they have the same interpretations as the Feminine and Masculine energies.

Seven Lotus Flowers or Chakras, which are spiritual organs, are placed on the spine. Macrocosmic Man: Left side of Man is the masculine side and the right side is the feminine side, as we see the Tree of Life from the front, the macrocosmic man. The correspondence between the Chakras see later and the Sephirots: Sahasrara or the Crown Chakra, corresponds to Keter. Muladhara, the base of spine, the Root Chakra, corresponds to Malkhu. From the heart and up the feminine and masculine energies are nearly in Equilibrium with the heart near the center.

Chesed, 6. Gevurah, 7. Chokmah, 8. Binah, 9. Daat, Microcosmic Man: Rudolf Steiner describes the two sides of man as being a kind of fight between Luciferic and Ahrimanic powers, where Lucifer is the masculine power Yang and Ahriman is the feminine power Yin.

Both described in the literature as Serpents or Dragons. They are on Earth seen as Evil powers, but they are necessary factors in our development, as we both need the Feminine and Masculine influence, but we need to find the balance between them. The left part of you — your left man, as it were — is the fortification set up by Lucifer, and your right man is the fortification set up by Ahriman. And the whole art of life consists in finding the true balance between them. See also an extended Collection of Steiner texts about Lucifer and Ahriman pdf.

The energy flows from the left side to the right side, from the Luciferic or Masculine side to the Ahrimanic or Feminine side. Crossed arms or legs shortcuts the natural streams and should be avoided, except where specified in meditative practices. From The Kingdom of God from www. So they knew there was something in it… This is the primule, is the germinating power within us. Now this fact has been accepted for thousands of years in India and elsewhere.

For in the Bible also … they talk of the Tree of Life. The cool breeze of the Holy Ghost is described in the Bible also. The IBUg urban art festival took place in Meerane, bringing together about urban artists for repainting an abandoned factory. For more info and photos, visit www.

Mithraism, also known as the Mithraic mysteries, was a mystery religion centred around the god Mithras that was practised in the Roman Empire from about the 1st to the 4th century CE. The religion was inspired by Persian worship of the god Mithra proto-Indo-Iranian Mitra , though the Greek Mithras was linked to a new and distinctive imagery, and the level of continuity between Persian and Greco-Roman practice is debated.

The mysteries were popular in the Roman military. Worshippers of Mithras had a complex system of seven grades of initiation and communal ritual meals. They met in underground temples, called mithraea, which survive in large numbers. The cult appears to have had its centre in Rome. Numerous archaeological finds, including meeting places, monuments and artifacts, have contributed to modern knowledge about Mithraism throughout the Roman Empire.

The iconic scenes of Mithras show him being born from a rock, slaughtering a bull, and sharing a banquet with the god Sol the Sun. About sites have yielded materials related to the cult. Among the items found are about inscriptions, examples of the bull-killing scene tauroctony , and about other monuments. No written narratives or theology from the religion survive; limited information can be derived from the inscriptions and brief or passing references in Greek and Latin literature.

Interpretation of the physical evidence remains problematic and contested. The Romans regarded the mysteries as having Persian or Zoroastrian sources. Since the early s the dominant scholarship has noted dissimilarities between Persian Mithra-worship and the Roman Mithraic mysteries. The term "Mithraism" is a modern convention. Writers of the Roman era referred to it by phrases such as "Mithraic mysteries", "mysteries of Mithras" or "mysteries of the Persians".

Modern sources sometimes refer to the Greco-Roman religion as "Roman Mithraism" or "Western Mithraism" to distinguish it from Persian worship of Mithra. The exact form of a Latin or classical Greek word varies due to the grammatical process of declension. There is archaeological evidence that in Latin worshippers wrote the nominative form of the god's name as "Mithras".

In Sanskrit, "mitra" means "friend" or "friendship". Modern historians have different conceptions about whether these names refer to the same god or not. John R. On the other hand, David Ulansey considers the bull-slaying Mithras to be a new god who began to be worshipped in the 1st century BCE, and to whom an old name was applied. Mary Boyce, a researcher of ancient Iranian religions, writes that even though Roman Empire Mithraism seems to have had less Iranian content than historians used to think, none the less "as the name Mithras alone shows, this content was of some importance".

Mithras-worship in the Roman Empire was characterized by images of the god slaughtering a bull. Other images of Mithras are found in the Roman temples, for instance Mithras banqueting with Sol, and depictions of the birth of Mithras from a rock. The practice of depicting the god slaying a bull seems to be specific to Roman Mithraism.

According to David Ulansey, this is "perhaps the most important example" of evident difference between Iranian and Roman traditions: " The image may be a relief, or free-standing, and side details may be present or omitted. The centre-piece is Mithras clothed in Anatolian costume and wearing a Phrygian cap; who is kneeling on the exhausted bull, holding it by the nostrils with his left hand, and stabbing it with his right.

As he does so, he looks over his shoulder towards the figure of Sol. The second most important scene after the tauroctony in Mithraic art is the so-called banquet scene. The banquet scene features Mithras and the Sol Invictus banqueting on the hide of the slaughtered bull. On the specific banquet scene on the Fiano Romano relief, one of the torchbearers points a caduceus towards the base of an altar, where flames appear to spring up.

Robert Turcan has argued that since the caduceus is an attribute of Mercury, and in mythology Mercury is depicted as a psychopomp, the eliciting of flames in this scene is referring to the dispatch of human souls and expressing the Mithraic doctrine on this matter. Turcan also connects this event to the tauroctony: the blood of the slain bull has soaked the ground at the base of the altar, and from the blood the souls are elicited in flames by the caduceus.

Birth from a rock.. Mithras is depicted as being born from a rock. He is shown as emerging from a rock, already in his youth, with a dagger in one hand and a torch in the other. He is nude, standing with his legs together, and is wearing a Phrygian cap. However, there are variations. Sometimes he is shown as coming out of the rock as a child, and in one instance he has a globe in one hand; sometimes a thunderbolt is seen.

There are also depictions in which flames are shooting from the rock and also from Mithras' cap. One statue had its base perforated so that it could serve as a fountain, and the base of another has the mask of the water god. Sometimes Mithras also has other weapons such as bows and arrows, and there are also animals such as dogs, serpents, dolphins, eagles, other birds, lion, crocodiles, lobsters and snails around. On some reliefs, there is a bearded figure identified as Oceanus, the water god, and on some there are the gods of the four winds.

In these reliefs, the four elements could be invoked together. Sometimes Victoria, Luna, Sol and Saturn also seem to play a role. Saturn in particular is often seen handing over the dagger to Mithras so that he can perform his mighty deeds. In some depictions, Cautes and Cautopates are also present; sometimes they are depicted as shepherds. On some occasions, an amphora is seen, and a few instances show variations like an egg birth or a tree birth.

Some interpretations show that the birth of Mithras was celebrated by lighting torches or candles. The festival of Natalis Invicti, held on 25 December, was a general festival of the Sun, and by no means specific to the Mysteries of Mithras. Say: 'Night'. He will say: 'Where Say: 'All things He will say : ' He will say: 'Where is your? Say : ' He will say: 'Why, having girded yourself,? Very sharp and He will say? Say: ' He will say: 'Why?

Say: 'Drink and food'. He will say '? Almost no Mithraic scripture or first-hand account of its highly secret rituals survives; with the exception of the aforementioned oath and catechism, and the document known as the Mithras Liturgy, from 4th century Egypt, whose status as a Mithraist text has been questioned by scholars including Franz Cumont. The walls of Mithraea were commonly whitewashed, and where this survives it tends to carry extensive repositories of graffiti; and these, together with inscriptions on Mithraic monuments, form the main source for Mithraic texts.

Mir taugt Sozialismus dieser halfgebackene falsche Kommunismus definitiv Kapitalismus an sich ist nicht das Problem: bei guter Gestaltung das derzeit vermutlich beste System, das wir kennen. Wer bitte sollte denn dann Kapitalismus gestalten? Man braucht was anderes, Tatsache aber ist, die jetzig gelebte Form des Kapitalismus ist der jetzig oder damalig gelebten Form des Sozialismus vorzuziehen.

Denn genau das ist es, der Sozialismus funktioniert nur auf dem Papie. Kommunismus gab es noch nie. Die "Russenmafia" von der CIA aufgebaut,ist heute noch sehr aktiv. Die Menschen haben gelernt,das sie. Die Gemeinschaft stand so hoch im Kurs. Das ist absolut richtig was Sie geschrieben haben. Wer in die Geschichte schaut, wird selber feststellen das Kapitalismus noch NIE den Menschen gedient hat, sondern nur ein Sklavensystem erzeugt hat.

Im Die Menschen haben sich dem System angepasst. Reichtum durch Erbschaft gibt es nicht! Der Kapitalismus baut sein System auf private Banken und deren Kapital auf, geerbtes oder gestohlenes Reichtum durch Tot und koloniale Kriege. Der Kapitalismus hat versagt? Den braucht heute keiner mehr. Weil die Menschen alles selber machen. Nun sage doch mal einer, wozu braucht man heute noch den Kapitalisten, also den Profiteur? Ein guter Neuanfang.

Auf der anderen Seite Wo also ist der Kommunismus schlechter als der Kapitalismus? Look out world Take a good look what comes down here You must learn these lesson fast and learn it well. Gegenfrage : Hat der Kommunismus versagt? Und Dann winkt der Wertewesten mit DM Sowas kommt von sowas. Tschechen, Ungarn, Polen usw. Der junge Mann war clever und verdiente deshalb sehr gut!! Bitte RT, was hat das mit "Nostalgie" zu tun? Ich habe in der DDR gelebt. Kannst du reisen! Die Russen haben die gleichen Probleme im Kapitalismus wie in Deutschland auch.

Die Sowjetunion bot mehr als der Konsumismus jemals bieten kann. Wer beide Systeme direkt erlebt hat, kann sie vergleichen, das aber betrifft meist nur das eigene Leben und. Die hat mir immer geholfen gutes Geld zu verdienen. Ich konnte mir sogar die Welt ansehen. Der Mensch neigt dazu, Dinge zu vergessen und sich nur an gute Dinge zu erinnern. Jetzt weiss ich auch warum der geneigte Wessi Konsumzombie nichts gegen diesen Untrechtsstaat der Stasiraute unternimmt!

Der Wessi lebt wie im alten Rom Brot und Spiele Sie sind sicher nicht der Sprecher aller Ostdeutschen, viele die in der DDR lebten, haben das System ganz sicherlich nicht als Diktatur empfunden.. Banditen sind pseudolinke Geschichtrevisionisten, besonders die, die sich mit idiotischen Vergleichen hervortun.

Ein unfassbar wichtiges Zeitdokument: ciml. Der Stil ist manchmal ein wenig altbacken, ist halt eine andere Zeit gewesen, und manche Sachen sind sehr in dieser Zeit damals behaftet und heute weniger interessant finde ich , aber insgesamt super spannend!

Beides ist Gold wert! Lies mal, was Einstein zu den Show-Prozessen zu sagen hatte. Lies auch sein "Warum Sozialismus" von Das sind Mythen. Ich war mein Leben lang Anarchist bzw. Zumal es so, wie du es formulierst, schlicht nicht stimmt Lies mal bitte: www. Und auch das hier: www. Ich empfehle dir alle vier Teile. Jede Zeit verdient ihre Polpot aber studierte in Frankreich - angeblich Radiotechnik - nach London war es da nicht weit, sich Instruktionen abzuholen Die ganze Geschichte mit Stalin ist wirklich eine Verwirrung.

Ich habe sogar eine geschichtliche Version gelesen in der Stalin die Freimaurer im Westen erpresst haben soll. Stalin soll selber jesuitisch erzogen worden sein und die wiederum sind hinter den Kulissen keine Feinde der Freimaurer. Sie tragen dieselben Symbole. Jeder kann sich irgendeinen Phantasie-namen geben. Auch das stimmt nicht, es stimmt einfach nicht.

Oder guck mal diese Vorlesung des Historikers Stephen Kotkin: www. Und die angebliche "Enthauptung" der Roten Armee ist auch so ein Mythos. Und sollte das wirklich der Fall gewesen sein, dass war es kriegsentscheidend, dass diese 5. Kolonne rechtzeitig aus den Reihen der Armee entfernt wurde. Bei Quora hat jemand mal ein paar dieser Zeugnisse zum Thema gelistet. Die Konterrevolution hat dort wie heute in Hongkong oder in der Ukraine die Machtfrage gestellt und die Regierenden mussten sie beantworten.

Dabei kamen auch Unschuldige und zum Teil nicht mehr Schuldige um. Was soll daran falsch sein, das sich Banken und alles wichtige in einer Gesellschaft in der Hand des Volkes befinden? Gerade die banken sind doch im Moment nur noch Zockerbuden. Keine Gesellschaft braucht Parteien.

Das sind die Leute die beim Kapitalismus angekommen sind. Schuldzuweisungen bringen jetzt wenig. Die sind ihren Aufgaben einfach nicht gewachsen! Ohne den Beitrag gesehen zu haben kann man festhalten das die Besinnung auf Werte nie schlecht sein kann. Kein Wessi will eine Lebensleistung in Abrede stellen aber das bejubeln eines Verbrecherstaates kann nicht hingenommen werden.

Die BRD basiert auf Betrug und Lug und ist ein diktatorisches, menschenverachtendes, sowie verbrecherisches. Die Morde an Rohwedder und Herrhausen lassen ich mal aussen vor, die stinken auch gegen den Himmel. DAS ist der Punkt! Entschuldung Afrika und 3. Auch ermordet, von wem????? Wenn es ums improvizieren geht, dann darf man wetten, wer da besser mit klar kommt.

Ich weiss, wer da von den Dreien den Nagel oder die Schraube ohne Probleme in die Wand bekommt - lach. Jeder bekommt was ab. Aber politisch, wirtschaftlich und juristisch ist er leider eine Null. Der Kapitalismus hat nicht versagt. Er ist genau das als was er definiert ist. Eine profitorientierte Menschen-Schredder-Maschine. Es ist eben ein Unterschied ob ich den Reichtum unter einer ganzen Gesellschaft aufteile oder nur unter wenigen. Die ihn dann benutzen um mit den Methoden der Sklaverei und des Feudalismus den Rest der Gesellschaft zu unterjochen.

Sie gegeneinander aus zu spielen. Das ist in jedem Falle leichter. Und da sind dann die Sozialdemokraten ganz weit vorne dies zu verteufeln. Sowas von Tatsachen - Verdrehung. Kann nur ein Sozi. Die Unzufriedenheit mit dem Jetzt und die Sehnsucht nach der Vergangenheit hat sicher auch mit der dringend notwendigen Sanierung des russischen Staatshaushaltes zu tun:.

Das ist eine durchaus knifflige Situation. Den interessieren die Arbeiter da unten einen Scheiss. Ich vermute Sie haben nicht im Osten gelebt, also eh Hopfen und Malz verloren. Nun ich komme aus dem Osten und brauche keine "erste Hand". DDR und Russland. Klar lagen da Welten dazwischen. Ganz besonders im Lebensniveau. Also ein weites Feld. Gehe ich sofort mit. Die Menschen wollen leben, ohne von einer Partei, Verwaltungs und Beamtenkrake ausgesaugt zu werden, die ihnen aufzwingt wo's nach deren Ansicht lang gehen soll.

Vor dem 2. Es ist eigentlich ein Wunder, dass der Ostblock bis ca. In China Laut Hegel ist ja alles materie, china oder russland irrelevant. Guten Abend, Politikscanner. Freiwillig schafft der Kap keine soz. Leistungen, die entstehen entweder durch Druck der Gewerkschaften oder entstanden damals durch Beispiele des Ostens.

Man nehme nur die Rolle der Frau in der Gesellschaft. Heute dagegen will man wohl den ex. Das erschien vor 10 Jahren und sah das Thema als erledigt. UND: Der Faschismus ist nahe These etheric streams are also active in man: earth either from the head to the right foot, from there water ether to the left hand, from there fire ether to the right hand, from there air ether to the left foot, and then thought ether back to the head.

Its point is directed upwards, which indicates that the spirit streams to man from the heights. The pentagram is present in many flowers and other things in nature. The sign of black magic is a pentagram with one point at the bottom, through which magicians attract bad forces from the earth and send them out of the two top horns into the environment by means of their bad will in order to use soul and nature forces for their own egotistical, evil purposes.

The cosmic blood flow is currently recognized as a characteristic of the Electric Bridge and it is now possible, in parallel, to focus on the form that is constructed and sustained through this fluid, electrical support. As it is well known, the basis of all organic life is carbon and one of the secrets contained in the ability of carbon to form long polymer chains and build organic forms, is the magnetic power inherent in it.

Until now, scientific theory considered it impossible to magnetize carbon at room temperature because of its electron configuration; the "magnetic club" was an exclusive group that included only a few prestigious members: copper, cobalt, nickel and a few rare alloys. But now, with the result of sophisticated research on light, carbon is officially recognized as part of this group: science and technology are working to bring together the world of magnetism and that of carbon - something that the high priests of alchemy had long done.

Magnetism is an "order phenomenon" - for scientists and occultists alike, it will be used to transfigure the structure of form into a home more appropriate for the mind. Magnetic carbon has a central role to play in this process because it is the hidden and long sought-after key to the philosopher's stone.

The relationship between inner and outer man focuses on the alchemy of carbon and current research on the electronic and magnetic functioning of carbon has immense implications for the future; it will help humanity to transcend the physical plane through new conceptions of time and space, and with the words of the Tibetan There are seven basic types of electrical power that the spiritualized and creative human being can use and seven corresponding types of matter, and the resulting construction work lies at the heart of a future electrical alchemy where "temples will be built that will not be made with hands.

When humanity as a whole has progressed to a more spiritual state of consciousness, the electrical manipulation of carbon will be widely practiced through the natural abilities dormant in each individual. Humanity will then begin to work consciously as one, to transform the earth, and later, the entire solar system, into a living temple.

It will be a temple of transfigured carbon and humanity will express itself through it, as a living diamond, as a kingdom of souls. The key to implementing this great Alchemic undertaking lies in understanding the "seventh ray in connection with the phenomena of electricity, by means of which the solar system is coordinated and vitalized When the great work is accomplished, we will see the Temple of God, the solar system, organized objectively and subjectively; its sacred places will then be accessible to the sons of men, who will then be able to work unimpeded and have free access to all parts of the building.

Through the magic of the Word, which will then have been found, all doors will open, and man's consciousness will respond to every divine manifestation. It is not only an enigmatic and mystical vision, but an intensely practical vision, an understanding of the fundamental role of carbon in the electric bridge that will reveal :. In Nature, everything has an electric nature. Life itself is electricity.

But the electricity that we currently know and use is only physical electricity, inherent in the physical and etheric matter of all forms, and linked to this matter The secret lies therefore in future scientific discoveries. The discovery of the magnetic properties of carbon and its ability to respond to electrical manipulation is one of these secrets, but much more is about to be revealed We are always surrounded by five ether currents in the world around us on earth.

They are called earth, water, fire, air and thought ethers. These etheric currents are also active in man: the earth is from head to right foot, from there the ether of water to left hand, from there the ether of fire to right hand, from there the ether of air to left foot, then the ether of thought to head. It is the sacred pentagram of the occultist, symbol of man.

Its point is pointing upwards, which indicates that the spirit is flowing towards man from the heights. The sign of black magic is a pentagram with a dot at the bottom, through which magicians attract the evil energies of the earth and send them out of the two upper horns into the environment through their evil wills in order to use the forces of the soul and nature for their own selfish and evil ends. With regard to the first term, it should be noted that, in their respective interpretations, both Saint Augustine and Maimonides identify the beginning with the principle[10][10] They thus distinguish themselves from Saint Thomas Aquinas, who This is the reason why the first bed: "In principle you made heaven and earth" in principio fecit Deus coelum et terram [11][11] Saint Augustine, Confessions, XI, 3, 5.

Munk, Verdier, We are all born in an "astrological field", in a particular flow of energy which determines many parameters of our life: our personality, our potential, etc. In Hebrew this is referred to as "Mazal", which means "alignment of celestial bodies".

But this term can also mean "luck", as when one wishes someone "Mazal Tov". A person's Mazal is determined at birth. Now in the paracha of Lekh-Lekha, God makes Abraham leave his tent and enjoins him "to try to count the stars". God then changed Abraham's name and raised him metaphorically above the stars to realign his destiny. Why did Abraham deserve this special treatment? The dominant vision of the time was idolatry.

Abraham, having perceived the falsity of this vision, had risen above social norms. In response to his transcendent act, God raised Abraham above the laws of nature, "beyond the stars. From this moment flowed an eternal principle: the Jews would be above the Mazal.

We will no longer have to follow the fate dictated by the stars. History has clearly confirmed this: Jews survived the great empires that were the Romans or the Greeks. Even today, the Jews of Israel defy nature by their flourishing presence on a land surrounded by enemies.

But beyond national considerations, this idea has profound implications in our personal lives as well. The Talmud tells us that Rabbi Aquiva's daughter was to die on her wedding day. During the wedding meal, the bride froze the needle of her bun in the wall behind her, killing a snake that was there and was about to bite her. When the body of the beast was discovered and it was realized what it had just escaped, it was asked to recall the events of the day. She told how in the middle of the festivities she had noticed poor people waiting outside, and she had left her own wedding to bring them food.

An extraordinary act of charity! This is where we can see how this rule works. This woman's superhuman act had elevated her above the pre-programmed system, which altered her destiny and changed her life. If we aspire to it, we can also benefit from it. Hermes, Moses: as alchemist, ; competition with Pharaoh's magicians, To continue the tale of the serpents lets look at the Kundalini Fire from India.

The Kundalini system looks like the Caduceus Staff with the two Serpents around the spine: Kundalini with Chakras The serpents has two different colors like the two outer pillars in the Kabbalah Tree of Life, and they have the same interpretations as the Feminine and Masculine energies. Seven Lotus Flowers or Chakras, which are spiritual organs, are placed on the spine.

Macrocosmic Man: Left side of Man is the masculine side and the right side is the feminine side, as we see the Tree of Life from the front, the macrocosmic man. The correspondence between the Chakras see later and the Sephirots: Sahasrara or the Crown Chakra, corresponds to Keter. Muladhara, the base of spine, the Root Chakra, corresponds to Malkhu.

From the heart and up the feminine and masculine energies are nearly in Equilibrium with the heart near the center. Chesed, 6. Gevurah, 7. Chokmah, 8. Binah, 9. Daat, Microcosmic Man: Rudolf Steiner describes the two sides of man as being a kind of fight between Luciferic and Ahrimanic powers, where Lucifer is the masculine power Yang and Ahriman is the feminine power Yin.

Both described in the literature as Serpents or Dragons. They are on Earth seen as Evil powers, but they are necessary factors in our development, as we both need the Feminine and Masculine influence, but we need to find the balance between them. The left part of you — your left man, as it were — is the fortification set up by Lucifer, and your right man is the fortification set up by Ahriman. And the whole art of life consists in finding the true balance between them.

See also an extended Collection of Steiner texts about Lucifer and Ahriman pdf. The energy flows from the left side to the right side, from the Luciferic or Masculine side to the Ahrimanic or Feminine side. Crossed arms or legs shortcuts the natural streams and should be avoided, except where specified in meditative practices. From The Kingdom of God from www. So they knew there was something in it… This is the primule, is the germinating power within us.

Now this fact has been accepted for thousands of years in India and elsewhere. For in the Bible also … they talk of the Tree of Life. The cool breeze of the Holy Ghost is described in the Bible also. Mithraism, also known as the Mithraic mysteries, was a mystery religion centred around the god Mithras that was practised in the Roman Empire from about the 1st to the 4th century CE.

The religion was inspired by Persian worship of the god Mithra proto-Indo-Iranian Mitra , though the Greek Mithras was linked to a new and distinctive imagery, and the level of continuity between Persian and Greco-Roman practice is debated. The mysteries were popular in the Roman military. Worshippers of Mithras had a complex system of seven grades of initiation and communal ritual meals. They met in underground temples, called mithraea, which survive in large numbers.

The cult appears to have had its centre in Rome. Numerous archaeological finds, including meeting places, monuments and artifacts, have contributed to modern knowledge about Mithraism throughout the Roman Empire. The iconic scenes of Mithras show him being born from a rock, slaughtering a bull, and sharing a banquet with the god Sol the Sun.

About sites have yielded materials related to the cult. Among the items found are about inscriptions, examples of the bull-killing scene tauroctony , and about other monuments. No written narratives or theology from the religion survive; limited information can be derived from the inscriptions and brief or passing references in Greek and Latin literature. Interpretation of the physical evidence remains problematic and contested. The Romans regarded the mysteries as having Persian or Zoroastrian sources.

Since the early s the dominant scholarship has noted dissimilarities between Persian Mithra-worship and the Roman Mithraic mysteries. The term "Mithraism" is a modern convention. Writers of the Roman era referred to it by phrases such as "Mithraic mysteries", "mysteries of Mithras" or "mysteries of the Persians".

Modern sources sometimes refer to the Greco-Roman religion as "Roman Mithraism" or "Western Mithraism" to distinguish it from Persian worship of Mithra. The exact form of a Latin or classical Greek word varies due to the grammatical process of declension.

There is archaeological evidence that in Latin worshippers wrote the nominative form of the god's name as "Mithras". In Sanskrit, "mitra" means "friend" or "friendship". Modern historians have different conceptions about whether these names refer to the same god or not. John R. On the other hand, David Ulansey considers the bull-slaying Mithras to be a new god who began to be worshipped in the 1st century BCE, and to whom an old name was applied. Mary Boyce, a researcher of ancient Iranian religions, writes that even though Roman Empire Mithraism seems to have had less Iranian content than historians used to think, none the less "as the name Mithras alone shows, this content was of some importance".

Mithras-worship in the Roman Empire was characterized by images of the god slaughtering a bull. Other images of Mithras are found in the Roman temples, for instance Mithras banqueting with Sol, and depictions of the birth of Mithras from a rock. The practice of depicting the god slaying a bull seems to be specific to Roman Mithraism. According to David Ulansey, this is "perhaps the most important example" of evident difference between Iranian and Roman traditions: " The image may be a relief, or free-standing, and side details may be present or omitted.

The centre-piece is Mithras clothed in Anatolian costume and wearing a Phrygian cap; who is kneeling on the exhausted bull, holding it by the nostrils with his left hand, and stabbing it with his right. As he does so, he looks over his shoulder towards the figure of Sol.

The second most important scene after the tauroctony in Mithraic art is the so-called banquet scene. The banquet scene features Mithras and the Sol Invictus banqueting on the hide of the slaughtered bull. On the specific banquet scene on the Fiano Romano relief, one of the torchbearers points a caduceus towards the base of an altar, where flames appear to spring up. Robert Turcan has argued that since the caduceus is an attribute of Mercury, and in mythology Mercury is depicted as a psychopomp, the eliciting of flames in this scene is referring to the dispatch of human souls and expressing the Mithraic doctrine on this matter.

Turcan also connects this event to the tauroctony: the blood of the slain bull has soaked the ground at the base of the altar, and from the blood the souls are elicited in flames by the caduceus. Birth from a rock.. Mithras is depicted as being born from a rock. He is shown as emerging from a rock, already in his youth, with a dagger in one hand and a torch in the other.

He is nude, standing with his legs together, and is wearing a Phrygian cap. However, there are variations. Sometimes he is shown as coming out of the rock as a child, and in one instance he has a globe in one hand; sometimes a thunderbolt is seen. There are also depictions in which flames are shooting from the rock and also from Mithras' cap. One statue had its base perforated so that it could serve as a fountain, and the base of another has the mask of the water god.

Sometimes Mithras also has other weapons such as bows and arrows, and there are also animals such as dogs, serpents, dolphins, eagles, other birds, lion, crocodiles, lobsters and snails around. On some reliefs, there is a bearded figure identified as Oceanus, the water god, and on some there are the gods of the four winds.

In these reliefs, the four elements could be invoked together. Sometimes Victoria, Luna, Sol and Saturn also seem to play a role. Saturn in particular is often seen handing over the dagger to Mithras so that he can perform his mighty deeds.

In some depictions, Cautes and Cautopates are also present; sometimes they are depicted as shepherds. On some occasions, an amphora is seen, and a few instances show variations like an egg birth or a tree birth. Some interpretations show that the birth of Mithras was celebrated by lighting torches or candles. The festival of Natalis Invicti, held on 25 December, was a general festival of the Sun, and by no means specific to the Mysteries of Mithras. Say: 'Night'. He will say: 'Where Say: 'All things He will say : ' He will say: 'Where is your?

Say : ' He will say: 'Why, having girded yourself,? Very sharp and He will say? Say: ' He will say: 'Why? Say: 'Drink and food'. He will say '? Almost no Mithraic scripture or first-hand account of its highly secret rituals survives; with the exception of the aforementioned oath and catechism, and the document known as the Mithras Liturgy, from 4th century Egypt, whose status as a Mithraist text has been questioned by scholars including Franz Cumont.

The walls of Mithraea were commonly whitewashed, and where this survives it tends to carry extensive repositories of graffiti; and these, together with inscriptions on Mithraic monuments, form the main source for Mithraic texts. Nevertheless, it is clear from the archeology of numerous Mithraea that most rituals were associated with feasting — as eating utensils and food residues are almost invariably found. These tend to include both animal bones and also very large quantities of fruit residues.

The presence of large amounts of cherry-stones in particular would tend to confirm mid-summer late June, early July as a season especially associated with Mithraic festivities. The Virunum album, in the form of an inscribed bronze plaque, records a Mithraic festival of commemoration as taking place on 26 June For their feasts, Mithraic initiates reclined on stone benches arranged along the longer sides of the Mithraeum — typically there might be room for 15 to 30 diners, but very rarely many more than 40 men.

Counterpart dining rooms, or triclinia, were to be found above ground in the precincts of almost any temple or religious sanctuary in the Roman empire, and such rooms were commonly used for their regular feasts by Roman 'clubs', or collegia. Mithraic feasts probably performed a very similar function for Mithraists as the collegia did for those entitled to join them; indeed, since qualification for Roman collegia tended to be restricted to particular families, localities or traditional trades, Mithraism may have functioned in part as providing clubs for the unclubbed.

However, the size of the Mithraeum is not necessarily an indication of the size of the congregation. Each Mithraeum had several altars at the further end, underneath the representation of the tauroctony, and also commonly contained considerable numbers of subsidiary altars, both in the main Mithraeum chamber and in the ante-chamber or narthex.

These altars, which are of the standard Roman pattern, each carry a named dedicatory inscription from a particular initiate, who dedicated the altar to Mithras "in fulfillment of his vow", in gratitude for favours received. Burned residues of animal entrails are commonly found on the main altars indicating regular sacrificial use. However, Mithraea do not commonly appear to have been provided with facilities for ritual slaughter of sacrificial animals a highly specialised function in Roman religion , and it may be presumed that a Mithraeum would have made arrangements for this service to be provided for them in co-operation with the professional victimarius of the civic cult.

Prayers were addressed to the Sun three times a day, and Sunday was especially sacred. It is doubtful whether Mithraism had a monolithic and internally consistent doctrine. It may have varied from location to location. However, the iconography is relatively coherent. It had no predominant sanctuary or cultic centre; and, although each Mithraeum had its own officers and functionaries, there was no central supervisory authority.

In some Mithraea, such as that at Dura Europos, wall paintings depict prophets carrying scrolls, but no named Mithraic sages are known, nor does any reference give the title of any Mithraic scripture or teaching. It is known that intitates could transfer with their grades from one Mithraeum to another. A mithraeum found in the ruins of Ostia Antica, Italy. Temples of Mithras are sunk below ground, windowless, and very distinctive.

In cities, the basement of an apartment block might be converted; elsewhere they might be excavated and vaulted over, or converted from a natural cave. According to Walter Burkert, the secret character of Mithriac rituals meant that Mithraism could only be practiced within a Mithraeum. Some new finds at Tienen show evidence of large-scale feasting and suggest that the mystery religion may not have been as secretive as was generally believed.

For the most part, Mithraea tend to be small, externally undistinguished, and cheaply constructed; the cult generally preferring to create a new centre rather than expand an existing one. The Mithraeum represented the cave to which Mithras carried and then killed the bull; and where stone vaulting could not be afforded, the effect would be imitated with lath and plaster.

They are commonly located close to springs or streams; fresh water appears to have been required for some Mithraic rituals, and a basin is often incorporated into the structure. There is usually a narthex or ante-chamber at the entrance, and often other ancillary rooms for storage and the preparation of food.

The extant mithraea present us with actual physical remains of the architectural structures of the sacred spaces of the Mithraic cult. Mithraeum is a modern coinage and mithraists referred to their sacred structures as speleum or antrum cave , crypta underground hallway or corridor , fanum sacred or holy place , or even templum a temple or a sacred space.

In their basic form, mithraea were entirely different from the temples and shrines of other cults. In the standard pattern of Roman religious precincts, the temple building functioned as a house for the god, who was intended to be able to view through the opened doors and columnar portico, sacrificial worship being offered on an altar set in an open courtyard; potentially accessible not only to initiates of the cult, but also to colitores or non-initiated worshippers.

Mithraea were the antithesis of this. Degrees of initiation. In the Suda under the entry "Mithras", it states that "No one was permitted to be initiated into them the mysteries of Mithras , until he should show himself holy and steadfast by undergoing several graduated tests. There were seven grades of initiation into Mithraism, which are listed by St.

Manfred Clauss states that the number of grades, seven, must be connected to the planets. A mosaic in the Ostia Mithraeum of Felicissimus depicts these grades, with symbolic emblems that are connected either to the grades or are just symbols of the planets. The grades also have an inscription beside them commending each grade into the protection of the different planetary gods. Nymphus, Nymphobus Bridegroom lamp, hand bell, veil, circlet or diadem Venus Miles soldier pouch, helmet, lance, drum, belt, breastplateMars Leo lion batillum, sistrum, laurel wreath, thunderbolts Jupiter..

Perses Persian akinakes, Phrygian cap, sickle, sickle moon and stars, sling pouchLuna. Heliodromus sun-runner torch, images of the sun god, Helios whip, robes Sol Pater father patera, Mitre, shepherd's staff, garnet or ruby ring, chasuble or cape, elaborate robes jewel encrusted with metallic threads Saturn 'Note: In the table above, the article or picture links to the religious titles or impedimenta are merely illustrative approximations because, being an orally transmitted mystery cult, few reliable historical references have survived.

However, similar contemporary artefacts have been identified, and at the Mithraeum of Constantine, a 2nd-century mosaic does depict several Mithraic implements and symbols. Spade, sistrum, lightning bolt Sword, crescent moon, star, sickle Torch, crown, whip Patera, rod, Phrygian cap, sickle Elsewhere, as at Dura-Europos, Mithraic graffiti survive giving membership lists, in which initiates of a Mithraeum are named with their Mithraic grades.

At Virunum, the membership list or album sacratorum was maintained as an inscribed plaque, updated year by year as new members were initiated. By cross-referencing these lists it is possible to track some initiates from one Mithraeum to another; and also speculatively to identify Mithraic initiates with persons on other contemporary lists such as military service rolls, of lists of devotees of non-Mithraic religious sanctuaries.

Names of initiates are also found in the dedication inscriptions of altars and other cult objects. Clauss argues that the grades represented a distinct class of priests, sacerdotes. Gordon maintains the former theory of Merkelbach and others, especially noting such examples as Dura where all names are associated with a Mithraic grade. Some scholars maintain that practice may have differed over time, or from one Mithraeum to another.

The highest grade, pater, is far the most common found on dedications and inscriptions — and it would appear not to have been unusual for a Mithraeum to have several men with this grade. The form pater patrum father of fathers is often found, which appears to indicate the pater with primary status.

There are several examples of persons, commonly those of higher social status, joining a Mithraeum with the status pater — especially in Rome during the 'pagan revival' of the 4th century. It has been suggested that some Mithraea may have awarded honorary pater status to sympathetic dignitaries. The initiate into each grade appears to have been required to undertake a specific ordeal or test, involving exposure to heat, cold or threatened peril. An 'ordeal pit', dating to the early 3rd century, has been identified in the Mithraeum at Carrawburgh.

Accounts of the cruelty of the emperor Commodus describes his amusing himself by enacting Mithriac initiation ordeals in homicidal form. By the later 3rd century, the enacted trials appear to have been abated in rigor, as 'ordeal pits' were floored over. Admission into the community was completed with a handshake with the pater, just as Mithras and Sol shook hands. The initiates were thus referred to as syndexioi those united by the handshake.

The term is used in an inscription by Proficentius and derided by Firmicus Maternus in De errore profanarum religionum,a 4th Century Christian work attacking paganism. In ancient Iran, taking the right hand was the traditional way of concluding a treaty or signifying some solemn understanding between two parties. Ritual re-enactments Reconstruction of a mithraeum with a mosaic depicting the grades of initiation..

Activities of the most prominent deities in Mithraic scenes, Sol and Mithras, were imitated in rituals by the two most senior officers in the cult's hierarchy, the Pater and the Heliodromus. The initiates held a sacramental banquet, replicating the feast of Mithras and Sol. Reliefs on a cup found in Mainz, appear to depict a Mithraic initiation. On the cup, the initiate is depicted as being led into a location where a Pater would be seated in the guise of Mithras with a drawn bow. Accompanying the initiate is a mystagogue, who explains the symbolism and theology to the initiate.

The Rite is thought to re-enact what has come to be called the 'Water Miracle', in which Mithras fires a bolt into a rock, and from the rock now spouts water. Roger Beck has hypothesized a third processional Mithraic ritual, based on the Mainz cup and Porphyrys.

This so-called Procession of the Sun-Runner features the Heliodromus, escorted by two figures representing Cautes and Cautopates see below and preceded by an initiate of the grade Miles leading a ritual enactment of the solar journey around the mithraeum, which was intended to represent the cosmos. Consequently, it has been argued that most Mithraic rituals involved a re-enactment by the initiates of episodes in the Mithras narrative,a narrative whose main elements were: birth from the rock, striking water from stone with an arrow shot, the killing of the bull, Sol's submission to Mithras, Mithras and Sol feasting on the bull, the ascent of Mithras to heaven in a chariot.

A noticeable feature of this narrative and of its regular depiction in surviving sets of relief carvings is the complete absence of female personages. Membership Only male names appear in surviving inscribed membership lists.

Historians including Cumont and Richard Gordon have concluded that the cult was for men only. The ancient scholar Porphyry refers to female initiates in Mithraic rites. However, the early 20th-century historian A. Geden writes that this may be due to a misunderstanding. According to Geden, while the participation of women in the ritual was not unknown in the Eastern cults, the predominant military influence in Mithraism makes it unlikely in this instance.

Few, if any, initiates came from leading aristocratic or senatorial families until the 'pagan revival' of the mid-4th century; but there were always considerable numbers of freedmen and slaves. Clauss suggests that a statement by Porphyry, that people initiated into the Lion grade must keep their hands pure from everything that brings pain and harm and is impure, means that moral demands were made upon members of congregations.

A passage in the Caesares of Julian the Apostate refers to "commandments of Mithras". Tertullian, in his treatise 'On the Military Crown' records that Mithraists in the army were officially excused from wearing celebratory coronets on the basis of the Mithraic initiation ritual that included refusing a proffered crown, because "their only crown was Mithras". The origins and spread of the Mysteries have been intensely debated among scholars and there are radically differing views on these issues.

According to Ulansey, the earliest evidence for the Mithraic mysteries places their appearance in the middle of the 1st Century BCE: the historian Plutarch says that in 67 BCE the pirates of Cilicia a province on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor were practicing "secret rites" of Mithras.

However, according to Daniels, whether any of this relates to the origins of the mysteries is unclear. The unique underground temples or Mithraea appear suddenly in the archaeology in the last quarter of the 1st century CE. Citing Eubulus as his source, Porphyry writes that the original temple of Mithras was a natural cave, containing fountains, which Zoroaster found in the mountains of Persia. To Zoroaster, this cave was an image of the whole world, so he consecrated it to Mithras, the creator of the world.

Later in the same work, Porphyry links Mithras and the bull with planets and star-signs: Mithras himself is associated with the sign of Aries and the planet Mars, while the bull is associated with Venus. Porphyry is writing close to the demise of the cult, and Robert Turcan has challenged the idea that Porphyry's statements about Mithraism are accurate. His case is that far from representing what Mithraists believed, they are merely representations by the Neoplatonists of what it suited them in the late 4th century to read into the mysteries.

According to Beck, Porphyry's De antro is the only clear text from antiquity which tells us about the intent of the Mithriac Mysteries and how that intent was realized. David Ulansey finds it important that Porphyry "confirms While proposing the theory, Beck says that his scenario may be regarded as Cumontian in two ways. Firstly, because it looks again at Anatolia and Anatolians, and more importantly, because it hews back to the methodology first used by Cumont. Merkelbach suggests that its mysteries were essentially created by a particular person or persons and created in a specific place, the city of Rome, by someone from an eastern province or border state who knew the Iranian myths in detail, which he wove into his new grades of initiation; but that he must have been Greek and Greek-speaking because he incorporated elements of Greek Platonism into it.

The myths, he suggests, were probably created in the milieu of the imperial bureaucracy, and for its members. Clauss tends to agree. Beck calls this "the most likely scenario" and states "Until now, Mithraism has generally been treated as if it somehow evolved Topsy-like from its Iranian precursor — a most implausible scenario once it is stated explicitly. Hopfe notes that there are only three Mithraea in Roman Syria, in contrast to further west.

He writes: "Archaeology indicates that Roman Mithraism had its epicenter in Rome This new cosmic motion, he suggests, was seen by the founders of Mithraism as indicating the existence of a powerful new god capable of shifting the cosmic spheres and thereby controlling the universe. However, A. Bivar, L. Campbell and G. Widengren have variously argued that Roman Mithraism represents a continuation of some form of Iranian Mithra worship.

According to Antonia Tripolitis, Roman Mithraism originated in Vedic India and picked up many features of the cultures which it encountered in its westward journey. The first important expansion of the mysteries in the Empire seems to have happened quite quickly, late in the reign of Antoninus Pius b. By this time all the key elements of the mysteries were in place. Mithraism reached the apogee of its popularity during the 2nd and 3rd centuries, spreading at an "astonishing" rate at the same period when the worship of Sol Invictus was incorporated into the state-sponsored cults.

At this period a certain Pallas devoted a monograph to Mithras, and a little later Euboulus wrote a History of Mithras, although both works are now lost. According to the 4th century Historia Augusta, the emperor Commodus participated in its mysteries but it never became one of the state cults. It is difficult to trace when the cult of Mithras came to an end.

Beck states that "Quite early in the [fourth] century the religion was as good as dead throughout the empire. Clauss states that inscriptions show Mithras as one of the cults listed on inscriptions by Roman senators who had not converted to Christianity, as part of the "pagan revival" among the elite. Ulansey holds that "Mithraism declined with the rise to power of Christianity, until the beginning of the fifth century, when Christianity became strong enough to exterminate by force rival religions such as Mithraism.

Some Mithraic sanctuaries were destroyed and religion was no longer a matter of personal choice. According to Luther H. Martin, Roman Mithraism came to an end with the anti-pagan decrees of the Christian emperor Theodosius during the last decade of the 4th century.

At some of the mithraeums which have been found below churches, for example the Santa Prisca mithraeum and the San Clemente mithraeum, the ground plan of the church above was made in a way to symbolize Christianity's domination of Mithraism. According to Mark Humphries, the deliberate concealment of Mithraic cult objects in some areas suggests that precautions were being taken against Christian attacks.

However, in areas like the Rhine frontier, purely religious considerations cannot explain the end of Mithraism and barbarian invasions may also have played a role. There is virtually no evidence for the continuance of the cult of Mithras into the 5th century. In particular large numbers of votive coins deposited by worshippers have been recovered at the Mithraeum at Pons Sarravi Sarrebourg in Gallia Belgica, in a series that runs from Gallienus — to Theodosius I — These were scattered over the floor when the Mithraeum was destroyed, as Christians apparently regarded the coins as polluted; and they therefore provide reliable dates for the functioning of the Mithraeum.

It cannot be shown that any Mithraeum continued in use in the 5th century. The coin series in all Mithraea end at the end of the 4th century at the latest. The cult disappeared earlier than that of Isis. Isis was still remembered in the middle ages as a pagan deity, but Mithras was already forgotten in late antiquity.

Cumont stated in his book that Mithraism may have survived in certain remote cantons of the Alps and Vosges into the 5th century. The John, the Lord Chamberlain series of historical mystery novels depicts a secret Mithraist community still active in Justinian's court, but there is no historical evidence for such a late survival of the religion. The New Testament tells us a surprising thing, right at the beginning of the story of Christ Mat- thew It tells us that three wise men— Magi—followed a star to Bethlehem where they found the newborn Jesus.

The Massacre of the Innocents is not a story that is usually told at Christmas. We are told very little, actually, and at the end of their visit to the manger they make their departure secretly, avoiding Herod and his intrigues. These three kings are an anomaly in the story of Jesus.

It only appears in the Gospel according to Matthew, and not in any of the other Gospels. There does not seem to be a precedent for this in other Jewish traditional literature, since these kings were obviously not Jewish but foreigners who came from a land to the east of Palestine; Persia, perhaps, or Babylon. That they followed a star is evidence of their ability in astronomy but also their belief in astrology, because for them the appearance of the Star in the East had meaning.

Astronomers—like all scientists—do not deal in meaning, but in phenomena. Astrology—like the other occult sciences—is an at- tempt to assign meaning to phenomena. While astrology may be considered divination and therefore something proscribed by Jewish tradition and law, there is evidence that the Jews did practice a form of astrology themselves.

The Bible has other tales of the occult, sprinkled here and there throughout the Old and New Testaments, but usually with words of opprobrium. There is the famous tale of the Witch of Endor, who caused the ghost of Samuel to appear to King Saul on the eve of battle Samuel There is the injunction against the occult in the commandment: Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live Exodus And there is Jesus himself raising Lazarus from the dead John —44 , and performing exorcisms and doing other miraculous things which, if they were performed by any person today, would be considered witch- craft, magic, or demonstrations of occult powers.

Before Jesus begins his ministry, Satan tempts him in the desert, demonstrating his power over the material worlds; and, in another episode, Jesus himself turns to St. Oddly, Catholic tradition has it that St. Peter was crucified upside down; today, the inverted cross has become a symbol of. While Catholic priests are believed to have spiritual power over ghosts and demons—every Catholic priest has been ordained first as an exorcist—the use of occult powers has usually been considered closed to the priesthood and to lay- people alike.

The only ones using occultism and magic have been the heretics, the blasphemers, the so-called witches and sorcerers: people who are, by their very nature, believed to be on the side of the Adversary and opponents of the Church. Indeed, in the eighteenth century, this general indictment of occultism, occult groups, and secret societies was extended to include the alchemits.

Even as late as the s, a new age started with the same methods. Alchemy calling itself Propaganda Due or P2 was at the heart of the Vatican banking scandal in Italy. P2 was also involved in anti-communist intrigues, including assassinations, in the rest of the world. But was the Church itself entirely blameless when it came to conjuring demons, working magic, and casting spells? It is rumored that the largest collection of occult works in the world is to be found at the Vatican library. Are they there as curios, rare and valuable tomes to be consulted by Catholic scholars carefully vetted by the Holy See?

Or did they once have a more. Included in this book is one of the more in- famous grimoires—or magical workbooks— known to three centuries of ceremonial magicians throughout the Western world. Considered by some to be the most demonic of all occult texts, its authorship is attributed to a Pope.

While scholars contend that the Pope in question had nothing to do with it, they miss the most important point of the text: that it is a manual to be used by a Catholic priest. And therein lies a tale. For the first three hundred years of Christianity, the Church met in secret. It is well known that Christians were persecuted by the Roman. Empire—the image of the followers of Christ being thrown to the lions in the Coliseum is familiar to every schoolchild.

Thus, in order to worship in safety, these early Christians met at night in cemeteries and catacombs. In India, cults that met at night in cemeteries were known to be practitioners of Tantra: most particularly a form of Tantra outlawed by conservative Brahmins and that involved violating some of the basic precepts of Hindu religious law, including drinking alcohol, eating proscribed meat and grain. Sometimes, there was a political element to the Black Mass: a de- nial of the authority of the Catholic Church in matters both secular and sacred, which may or may not have had its analogue in the rites of Tantra.

At other times the Black Mass itself was seen. Of course, the Church would have us believe the latter: a few bad apples, like the convicted pedophile priests of the last few decades. But what if the practice of occultism could be traced far up the hierarchical ladder, to bishops, perhaps cardinals, and maybe even a Pope or two?

What would that say about the nature of religion, religious institu- tions, spiritual vocations, and faith itself? That there were many ecclesiastical personalities— some of them quite famous—who were also oc- cultists is a fact known to historians but largely unrecognized outside academia.

Bishop and Saint Albertus Magnus — , the mentor to St. Thomas Aquinas, was an occultist, alchemist, and magician. Abbot Johannes Trithemius — , a famous occultist and head of the Abbey at Sponheim in Germany, can also be considered the father of modern cryptography: the science of code-making that he invented in order to keep his occult writings safe from prying eyes.

He was a friend and correspondent of the famous magi- cian Cornelius Agrippa — , whose Three Books of Occult Philosophy are a classic in the literature.

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