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And it is such frustrated expectations that are held to have contributed to his subsequent militancy. A similar tale to that of Ressam has been told of one of those who bombed the London transport system in Germaine Lindsay had intended to go to a specific university, but due to a mix-up in posting his application, he was not accepted. With little variation, the names of those above could be replaced with that of Mohammed Bouyeri, as his story is told by Buruma. In November ,??

Bernton et al. E Stockman and D. Dissatisfaction and despair — individual alienation 35 he got into a brawl with a number of policemen in a coffeeshop in Amsterdam. When he applied for a security job at Schiphol Airport a year later, he was turned down because of a negative police report".

Mohammed's mother died of breast cancer. He had been her favourite child. Despite his periodic tantrums, Mohammed was good at hiding his feelings. He didn't attend her funeral in Morocco, and the effect of her death on him was not immediately apparent to others.

But people who knew him well thought he had become more introspective. He details how: for the past few decades, journalists, scholars, and other researchers have written a multitude of accounts that seek to explain the individual logic of suicide terrorism by assembling the life narratives of specific suicide bombers. These life narratives follow a similar pattern.

Typically, the writer begins by interviewing the suicide bomber's immediate family, friends, and other close associates, asking detailed questions about the personal history and psychological condition of the individual. London: Atlantic Books, , p. Bokhari et al. Cited in ibid. The quotation is actually from R. Stark and W. Bainbridge, A Theory of Religion. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, , p. He is right.

The problem is not that all claims that a very individual alienation significantly contributes to militancy are without substance. Rather, it remains unanswered, and likely unanswerable, as to how frequently this is the case — how many individuals were alienated in this manner and the extent to which this had a bearing on their later militancy.

Before exploring these issues we should turn to the second idea of alienation explored here, one that owes more to the structures within which the individual exists. Talking about this generation — structural alienation Even more than with the individual alienation approach, the idea that structural alienation holds the key to explaining radicalisation and subsequent militancy enjoys considerable support. This purported explanation counts amongst its adherents several of the most know- ledgeable and sophisticated analysts of militant Salafism.

It is one that relies heavily on the idea of generational alienation, emphasising that militant Salafism is a phenomenon that overwhelmingly attracts a particular young and male demographic. It holds that the appeal of militant Salafism lies largely in the unprecedented circumstances in which Muslims of this age group find themselves.

Roy, for example, argues that those proceeding to militancy: fall roughly into three categories: 1 second generation young males All of them are fully westernized and usually keep aloof from the mainstream Muslims. They are rebelling not only against their society, but against their own community and its traditional leaders. Most argue that Western Muslims face ethnic rejection, and that militant Salafism offers them a refuge from this.

This is considered later. The other view, detailed now, is rather that the spur to militancy is economic discrimination and disadvantage. Economic deprivation Although there are considerable regional and national variations, Muslims in the West continue to command poorer wages and worse positions than many other groups. This is deemed to be different than was the case for earlier generations, who also undoubtedly fared worse than many of their contemporaries. Forty to fifty years ago, European societies in particular drew workers from recently decolon- ised territories to do the jobs that domestic citizens would not.

The second category is that of young immigrants who have only been in the Netherlands for a couple of years, who only recently obtained a temporary or not even an official residence permit and who do not master the Dutch language very well Buruma, Murder in Amsterdam, p. Nonetheless, improvements were slow. Theirs con- tinued to be a life of minimum and minimal wages for the privilege of working in jobs non-immigrants would not countenance.

The argument is that some Muslims believe militant Salafism offers an explanation for and possible reso- lution to the the economic inequity they face in the country in which they were born. Whereas previously these populations had access to numerous unskilled or semi-skilled jobs, many of them now find themselves condemned to long-term unemployment, and the future for their children of working age looks bleak.

Many of them feel themselves to be victim of racist discrimination. It is such individuals who are deemed particularly susceptible to militancy. Others support that notion. Sageman, for example, describes a number of wealthy Arab immigrants sent to Europe in order to continue their studies. These men became militants. However, the original impetus for 52 G. Oxford: Polity, , p. Talking about this generation — structural alienation 39 militancy is seen as attributable to the socio-economic disadvantage of Muslims in the Western world.

Ethnic exclusion The more popular strand in the structural alienation approach is the idea that Western Muslims are excluded from the society into which they live, and were often born into, on the basis of their ethnicity. Again, earlier immigrants may have suffered similarly, but their expectations were such that this was less keenly felt.

Their children, born into Western society, neither anticipated nor accepted the preju- dice their parents bore. Several authors and analysts detail this rejec- tion by Western countries. Richard Reid, the young British man who attempted to blow up a plane from France to the United States, is a case in point. His father is a black Jamaican, his mother is white and English. He suffered racist abuse and was ostracised at school.

As a result, according to his aunt, he was vulnerable to people offering friendship and meaning to his life. He found solace with his Muslim broth- ers. With him, it became more than a religion. They became his brothers.

London: Belknap Press, , p. Another example often offered is that of Zacarias Moussaoui, serving a life sentence for his role in the World Trade Center attacks. In a biography written by the person who knew him best, his brother offers the following description of their childhood in France: Every day after school, Zac and I would play marbles with the same friend, who was a neighbour.

A few months after we'd gone back to school after the summer, one afternoon, at around 4. He looked at us. From afar. We walked over to him to ask him what was the matter. We play marbles together every day. Secondly, as non-immigrants, there was no refuge to be found in any other community.

They found themselves adrift between two cultures. Thus a void insidiously formed within us, an abyss which Zacarias and I would both try to negotiate, but in different ways. Like many young people of our generation, we were aware that we were not well acquainted with our original culture.

We knew nothing about almost all the social codes of the Arab world. And yet we were not truly accepted in the country of our birth. London: Serpent's Tale, , p. Talking about this generation — structural alienation 41 expectations'. The authors of a book on north London's Finsbury Park mosque, the institution that was at the centre of the radical Islamist community in a city that was the centre of militant activity in the West, offered the same explanation.

They wrote that those attending the mosque were [a] typical mix of social dropouts, petty criminals who had had brushes with prison, the homeless, drug users, asylum seekers who had run away from their own conflicts, and enthusiastic teenagers They came from various nationalities, but all shared a feeling of alienation and anger. They were ashamed that their parents had been too subservient. This generation was not going to stomach what they regarded as second-class treatment, or the racist taunts and violence from white gangs who wanted to drive them from their inner-city communities.

London: Hurst, , p. O'Neill and D. London: Harper Perennial, , pp. Note the mix of types of alienation. This is explored in more detail in the later critique. For some other examples, see Buruma, Murder in Amsterdam, p. Oussekine, cited in A. Biersteker and S. Eckert eds. New York: Routledge, , p. Vertovec and A. Rogers eds. And this is not peculiar to Britain.

Elsewhere in the West, the same sentiments are claimed and the same logic is applied. According to this approach, militant Salafism proves effective because of its provision of identity to people who are questioning their own, having had it questioned by others. They are reminded that their ethnicity trumps their citizenship and birth, race and religion proving more important than location.

In other words, the Islamic group fulfils a de-alienating function for its members in ways that are not matched by other rival political move- ments. Whilst not definitive, this suggests that personal experience is an insufficient explanation for militancy. The question remains as to why such a perception of Western hostility predominates. Coolsaet and T. This is an important approach.

Many renowned writers in the field subscribe to the idea that a poverty of identification leads a proportion of young Muslims to search for an alternative identity, or leaves them more receptive to an alternative they may be offered. He argues that the suffering of the individ- ual adrift from society mirrors that of Muslims worldwide.

Nonetheless, the popularity of this approach, and the undoubted knowledge of many of its advo- cates, should not hide from us the very significant problems it faces. Taken together, these seriously undermine the usefulness of alienation as a concept to help explain militancy. The unjustified popularity of the alienation thesis Ambiguity of the employment of alienation One significant problem with the explanatory claims made about alienation in relation to militant Salafism is that it is very often left infuriatingly loosely defined, if indeed it is defined at all.

That is not to say alienation as a concept has no use either in the social sciences more generally, or in terrorism more specifically. Sayyid, A Fundamental Fear, p. D Macey. London: Pluto Press, Such luminaries, however, stand in stark contrast to many of those using it in the context of militant Salafism, who are very rarely explicit as to what is being described. The point here is not that alienation is not a factor that may contribute to militancy, but that it is not clear in many of these accounts precisely what that alienation is, still less how it is held to work.

In attempting to explain all, it ultimately explains nothing. When and how alienation is felt to make its telling contribution to militancy, and what that contribution is, is left for others to determine. Weak evidence There are certainly easier topics to gather information on than mili- tant Salafism. Militants are usually known after they are either dead or incarcerated. Those able to talk usually prove unwilling to do so. Moreover, the field is beset with inaccurate reporting and outright fabrications.

Nonetheless, such difficulties represent obstacles to be 74 J, Williamson and C. The unjustified popularity of the alienation thesis 45 overcome, not excuses for not trying. However, very little empirical evidence is presented in support of the bold claims that alienation plays a key role in militant Salafism. There has been no systematic exploration of which militants were alienated in what manner and how they became so, the key explanatory claim made by so many analysts.

An illustration of this important point is provided by Pape. Most fit a nearly opposite profile: typically they are psychologically normal, have better than average economic prospects for their communities, and are deeply integrated into social networks. Without considerably more research, we are at best left with an intuitively plausible notion that is empirically verifiable only to a limited degree in some people.

In what other field of social science would this position meet with similar support? This insubstantial claim does little to increase our understanding as to why militant Salafism is proving so attractive to so many.

Furthermore, were more empirical research conducted, it is unlikely to offer much support to proponents of the alienation thesis. Whilst there are examples of individuals for whom some idea of alienation may be plausibly posited, there are also many where the reverse is true. The following examples are given by way of illustration — there are many others. As with his fellow conspirators, Shehzad Tanweer, Hasid Hussain and Germaine Lindsay, it is only a commitment to the idea that alienation must be a factor in militancy that dictates claims to that effect in the case of these men.

This is hardly an endorsement of the idea that militants emerge from the ranks of the alienated, however defined. Interestingly such evidence is insufficient to dissuade some knowledgeable com- mentators from suggesting alienation as a key factor in the men's militancy. Sheikh attended the Forest school in East London, a prestigious private institution where he was well-liked by the other mostly white and native English pupils.

Burke et al. Khan is a particularly good counter-example to the claim that individuals who go on to radicalise are alienated. Roy in particular cites as evidence for this the fact that they were not involved in community organisations. Although Khan was not active in those organisations Roy notes - there are not that many young Beeston men in trade unions today — he was clearly involved, and felt he had a stake, in community affairs.

After three years in Pakistan, where he attended Aitchison col- lege, a school favored by the Pakistani elite, Sheikh returned to Forest. His peers admired him for his good humor and strength — he had become a member of the British arm-wrestling squad, and he was always ready to show off against other students.

However, he went on to fight in Bosnia and kidnap in Kashmir. He is currently awaiting execution for involvement in the brutal murder of Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl. Prior to moving on to London, Hussein Osman lived in Italy. His girlfriend there described how he was obsessed with America. It was his dream. The music, Hip-hop. He dressed rapper-style. Trousers with a dropped crutch and a basketball vest.

He drank alcohol: beer. Everyone knew he was a Muslim and a believer, but he never talked about it to me, nor did he have any problems going out with those of us who were not Muslims. It was just that he didn't eat pork. Such examples are far from an exhaustive list.

They are a stark illustration that despite the term's prevalence, and regardless of which version of alienation is chosen, there are considerable numbers to whom 82 Vidino, Al Qaeda in Europe: The New Battleground of International Jihad, pp. Honigsbaum and V. There may be individuals who it may be argued meet specific criteria of alienation — Richard Reid and Mohammed Bouyeri are two oft-cited examples, and there are likely to be several more.

In any movement there are diverse backgrounds, personalities and characters. However, those who seek to characterise the entire collective based on the selection of a few individ- uals are rarely afforded such credence in other fields of study. This is sorely lacking.

Voice of protest Alienation is considered important by those using it in the study of militant Salafism because the militancy is felt to offer resolution for the predicament of some alienated individuals. As a result, militant Salafism is viewed only as a voice of protest whose ideology and claims are of little importance. Again, this conviction owes much to an implicit commitment to an alienated subject, a Cheshire-cat logic. According to this approach, we can ignore the individual's profes- sions of religious conviction, and political grievances.

He sat on a committee for a new youth centre, and even visited the Dutch parliament to argue its merits. Civil servants consulted him on how to improve relations between Moroccan youth and the police, after a series of riots in ; he was involved in local authority planning decisions; as late as he took a course in social work; and he enjoyed a position of influence at the community centre in Eigenwijks.

Slater and M. Stohl eds. London: Macmillan, , p. The explanation for militant Salafism is the same as most other violent movements. Such approaches ignore the content of militant Salafist ideology in favour of a pathologising of those who espouse it. Morality is reduced to instrumentalism alone. Broader applicability I have briefly tried to tease out what analysts and commentators understand by alienation.

Oxford University Press, , p. Princeton University Press, , pp. This encapsulates an approach with which Euben takes issue, and not her own position. In fact she is one of those who take as real that militant Salafist thought merits real intellectual engagement. Qutb, Milestones. Delhi: Islamic Book Service, There are enormous numbers of people who, as a result of such a definitional promiscuity or broadening, could reasonably be described as alienated, something only compounded when it is unclear from whom or what that alien- ation is held to be.

The customary defence is that the alienation thesis is insufficient on its own to explain why radicalisation occurs, but it nonetheless remains an important contributing factor. Alienation thus becomes but one ingredient in the mili- tant cake, often necessary, unlikely sufficient.

However, the claim that there is probably some notion of alienation that is a factor to an unspecified degree in the lives of militants and many others, is not one likely to tell us much about militant Salafists. Certainly, if the term is to be broadly conceived, writers using it must be far more circum- spect as to the work it does in analysing militancy.

Alienation is a highly nuanced, complex and fluid state. It exists in degrees — different in constitution and depth in different people and in the same person at different times. To say one is alienated is shorthand for something far more complex. If it is to be usefully applied in this or any analysis, that complexity must both be appreciated and reflected. This is a pro- foundly difficult task, one that is certainly not met in the militant Salafist literature.

Instead, underlying these alienation accounts is a presumption of an idealised non-alienated state, a wholly perfect white world, in contrast to a wholly imperfect black one. Within this world of dichotomous emotions, militancy offers the opportunity for one to cross from the latter state to the former. Schacht, Alienation. London: Allen and Unwin, , pp.

The unjustified popularity of the alienation thesis 51 can be illustrated if we try to imagine what this fortunate, non- alienated individual might look like. If so, could one really call him a person? And if one did, would one not have to add that his condition was severely pathological and bordered on idiocy? It also tends to circumvent the central puzzle of militant Salafism. This is not the choice of terrorism, which is rela- tively common across time and place.

Rather, it is how it was that those individuals who are part of the movement came to view the world in the way they did, one that rendered terrorism not only an option, but the appropriate one. More specifically, the crucial question is how they came to view themselves as militant Salafists. This leads to a final criticism of these approaches, as well as an indication as to how the phenomenon may more usefully be analysed.

Deficient attention is paid within existing literature on militant Salaf- ism to the role of the political imaginary. This is a crucial element in the tale of militancy, the way in which individuals reinvent themselves in a radically different manner often in a very short space of time. An examination of the exercise of the political imaginary has the potential to reveal a great deal about this process. However, it, and the structures that facilitate it, remain under-explored in the context of militant Salafism.

London: Allen Lane, , p. The consequences are serious in impeding an accurate understanding of the phenomenon and, with such a topical issue, contributing to questionable policy-making decisions. The question remains as to what a preferable alternative would look like.

Most of those militant Salafists living in the West have a tangential relationship, at best, with the Muslim world for which they claim to be fighting. To understand militant Salafism we must understand how this very particular political imaginary, one detailed in Chapter 1, was possible.

There are others who have explored the idea of the political imagin- ary in the context of militant Salafism, including some of the finest scholars in the area. In so doing he points to the fact that those who radicalise are claiming ties to a movement that has little concrete reality. There he discusses the significance of deterritorialisation and a subsequent re-Islamisation that can produce allegiance to an imagined community, and provides some very important insights.

Sageman, Understanding Terror Networks, p. Khosrokhavar, Suicide Bombers. London: Palgrave Macmillan, These are all wel- come contributions, but many tend only to touch on the idea of the political imaginary, ignore the context within which it operates, and offer only a partial analysis of the particular forces that give rise to the militant Salafist version.

These are the tasks of much of the remainder of this book. First of all, it is important to detail precisely what is meant by the political imaginary. The political imaginary Arjun Appadurai has written at some length on the political imaginary and its particular significance in political life today. He argues that we should be turning our attention to something new in global cultural processes: the imagination as a social practice.

No longer mere fantasy opium for the masses , no longer simple escape from a world defined principally by more concrete purposes and structures , no longer elite pastime thus not relevant to the lives of ordinary people , and no longer mere contemplation irrelevant for new forms of desire and subjectivity , the imagination has become an organized field of social practices, a form of work in the sense of both labour and culturally organized practice , and a form of negotiation between sites of agency individuals and globally defined fields of possibility The imagination is now central to all forms of agency, is itself a social fact, and is the key component of the new global order.

Appadurai is certainly not the first to point to the role of the imaginary and its political importance. In his seminal work Imagined Commu- nities, Benedict Anderson described how the convergence of capitalism and print technology made it increasingly feasible, and therefore common, for people highly unlikely to have ever met, to imagine themselves as part of the same community.

Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, , p. London: Verso, The political imaginary 55 development of the nation. The logic of Anderson's approach, that alterations in underlying conditions can give rise to alternative political imaginaries, is one that is very useful in understanding militant Salafism today. It is worth emphasising that the political imaginary is neither a flight of fantasy nor materially determined.

Various conditions shape the way individuals see the world and identify themselves as part of it, but within those constraints there is choice. Each of us has a great array of possible identifiers, by no means limited to place of birth, skin colour, sexuality, gender, class, language, family lineage, profession, religion and political beliefs.

The political imaginary represents not the escap- ism of the few but the political reality of the many, and is integral to the formation of numerous significant movements. In turn, that political imaginary is shaped by conditions of possibility. In the case of Anderson and the nation state, a key condi- tion of possibility was the advent of print technology. As this book is concerned with the militant ummah rather than the nation state, the question becomes what factors are making it easier for individuals to adopt the militant Salafist imaginary?

Italics in original. H Two of the best pieces of writing on identity are A. Sen, Identity and Violence. London: Allen Lane, and K. Booth, Theory of World Security. Cambridge University Press, , esp. Both authors oppose the artificial, limiting and dangerous narrowing of the multiplicity of identities of all individuals. Another thoughtful account is M. Castells, Tbe Power of Identity.

Oxford: Blackwell, Theirs is a political imaginary wherein apparently diverse global happenings are amalgamated and transported to local situations. This is made increasingly possible because of particular forces and conditions in the current era of globalised modernity. Globalised modernity The one constant in every time and place may well be that people of that period consider it to be one of great upheaval and transformation. Many of us today are exposed to a wealth of information from around the world every time we turn on our ubiquitous televisions and computers.

Even if they choose to remain close to their birthplace, they will be educated and employed alongside people who themselves are from elsewhere, or for whom in other ways movement is a very definite part of their lives. Of course, people have always moved, and information has for a very long time been transmitted thousands of miles. Nonetheless, we wit- ness today profound changes whose scope, depth and impact are different from anything that has gone before.

See the superb M. New York: Penguin, , p. As this work is concerned primarily with a phenomenon as it exists in economically wealthier countries, the all too common habit of ignoring people far less touched by various developments is for once justified. For a far more detailed examination of such changes, see T. Rantanen, The Media and Globalization. London: Sage, And many mass-mediated events are highly local in scope, as with cable television in some parts of the United States.

But few important films, news broadcasts, or television spectacles are entirely unaffected by other media events that come from further afield. Much had already been achieved by then in dramatically altering the relationship between space and place. London: Blackwell, , esp. Cambridge: Polity, Today such parochialism is less and less common. As territorial considerations are more readily overcome, alternative identifications and political discourses that do not rest upon a shared location - or any location — become increasingly possible.

Disembedding mechanisms are enjoying escalating influence, removing social and political activity from particular local contexts and reorganising and re-establishing them across far greater — often global - contexts. Globalisation can thus be defined as the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa.

Global forces Of the conditions of possibilities that have had the most powerful effect on the militant Salafist political imaginary, two are particularly significant. They are movement and media. I am not the first to note 1? Movement 59 their centrality to political movements. Appadurai, for example, writes how the combined effects of greater levels of migration and the new electronic media have produced a new global environment in which new opportunities for the political imaginary are available.

This helps to develop a world in which both points of departure and points of arrival are in cultural flux, and thus the search for steady points of reference, as critical life choices are made, can be very difficult. It is in this atmosphere that the invention of tradition can become slippery, as the search for certainties is regularly frustrated by the fluidities of transnational communication.

As group pasts become increasingly parts of museums, exhibits, and collec- tions, both in national and transnational spectacles, culture becomes less what Pierre Bourdieu would have called a habitus a tacit realm of reprodu- cible practices and dispositions and more an arena for conscious choice, justification and representation, the latter often to multiple and spatially dislocated audiences. It is to them that we now turn. Movement The world is moving. British holidaymakers who have long since abandoned the beaches of Blackpool and Aberystwyth are now for- saking those of the Costa del Sol in favour of the sand and sun of Croatia and Australia; city breaks and stag nights have transformed Budapest and Tallinn, and the ski slopes of Bulgaria resound with English, German and Russian.

Hundreds of thousands answer the call for a mobile global workforce. While total migration figures today are much larger, they are not larger as a percentage of the national populations involved. First, the majority of the countries of the world continue to increase their foreign resident populations.

This phenomenon is clearly identifiable in those parts of the world upon which this book focuses. Thirdly, movement shapes politics not in isolation, but in tandem with other dynamics. Amongst these is media, which massively accelerates and amplifies the effects and reach of movement. If the individual cannot be brought to movement, move- ment will be brought to them. Vigilance in avoiding hyperbolic claims should not therefore disguise the reality that we live in a world of unprecedented movement.

What we witness today is a burgeoning number of actors for whom boundaries and distance are nothing more than an inconvenience readily overcome. A key potential effect of this movement, with a tremendous bearing on political communities, is deterritorialisation. Friedman and S. Randeria eds. Miller, The Age of Migration, 3rd edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave, , p. Hyper media 61 Deterritorialisation Deterritorialisation is the idea that people have been removed from a milieu in which there is a strong connection linking territory and people, a process that 'destabDilises spatial boundaries'.

Ideas and identities that were founded within the context of a specific locale must increas- ingly compete with those from elsewhere. A new mobility is contributing towards a new international politics in which movement becomes more important than notions of territory. Of course, deterritorialisation does not lead inevitably to support for deterritorialised causes. There are numerous examples of political movements that continue to emphasise the congruency between people and place, despite memberships that have experienced considerable movement.

However, the greater movement of peoples allows for a greater fluidity in identity, a greater range of possibilities to which people are exposed and which may impact upon their political imaginary. Few phenomena illustrate this better than militant Salafism. Militant Salafists tend to have experienced considerable movement in their lives, as is detailed in Chapter 5.

It will be argued there that militant Salafists are overwhelmingly deterritorialised and that this lends itself to a deterritorialised vision without which militant Salafism could not easily exist. First though, we turn to the second key force — media. Hyper media Here the term media indicates hypermedia — electronically based, image- dominated, immediate, decentralised and interactive. Hypermedia is crucial to the militant Salafist in their accommodation of distant 27 M.

London: Continuum, , p. Cesari, Islam and Democracy Meet, p. New York: Columbia University Press, , p. Destruction of space Hypermedia has launched a further assault on distance, facilitating an immediacy of sustained communication between and within distant peoples. New York: Metropolitan Books, There are several examples that illustrate this development.

In a study of the Eritrean diaspora, and in particular its busiest website, www. Alternatives are presenting themselves. In the age of hypermedia, many of us have considerable access to a tremendous range of media forms, an exponential increase from even the recent past. It is appropriate to note that the majority of the world still lacks access to the Internet or television. Nonetheless, they are a diminishing population. Further, in those cases where access is limited, the effect of hypermedia often still permeates.

Individuals from countries where state control of the media is particularly severe, or where poverty precludes much of the technology on which hypermedia depends, may come into contact with others for whom it is less so. When Malaysian students study in French universities, Saudis visit business partners in Argentina, and Austrian aid workers are placed in Chad, hypermedia has an impact on and beyond those present.

The ripples this causes may travel in unintended directions and across unexpected distances. There are few people living there who do not have easy access to satellite television, DVDs and the Internet. Similarly, the obstacles to the production of films and Internet sites are increasingly readily overcome. It is then improved by a small US-headed team, before being broadcast to the world on an Arab-based satellite television network and subsequently repeated on countless shows and websites.

The democratisation of access is matched by the democratisation of production. Anyone armed with a video camera and computer can produce and transmit a film. Hypermedia also increases a specific kind of interaction. Further, the Internet offers actual interaction between consumers and producers. This is perhaps best exemplified by the profusion of chat forums on the Internet — something of which numerous movements, including militant Salafism, make great use.

Moreover, armed with anonymity, another array of obstacles to the exercise of the political imaginary may be overcome. Eriksson and G. Giacomello eds. London: Routledge, Hyper media 65 Bosnia and Iraq. However, the anonymity he is accorded in cyberspace can overcome such differences. His self-projection, rather than his location or actions, can define him.

We are communicating more and more in images, and this is having a profound effect on the political discourses such communication produces. First, consider the extent to which we are in an image-dominated era. Of words, almost nothing will come to mind.

This is the difference between thinking in a word- centred culture and thinking in an image-centred culture. Chicago University Press, , p. Sontag, Regarding the Pain of Others. New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, , p. See also FE. If we render the examples a little more contemporary and geographically diverse, the point only becomes stronger.

This is despite the fact that these individuals are public figures whose words and actions would, in the pre-image-dominated world, have been their route to recognition. Indeed years earlier, the equivalents of such individuals would have been able to walk the streets largely unrecognised. Their words, however, would be widely known. Images tend to be accommodated into existing narratives, rather than exercising substantive transforma- tive powers.

Images present an unanalysed, decontextualised snap- shot. The recipient does not interact with them in the way they do with a sustained written argument. They are more free-floating, to be taken, understood and used not according to the facts of the argument but rather according to the preferences of the consumer. They include no historical perspective. For insightful writings on this, see J.

Boulder: Westview Press, , and M. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, Transnationalism — the global is local 67 This is invaluable to the construction of a unified narrative from the stories of those living radically different lives in geographically discon- nected locations. Images can help to engender a sense of belonging to a collective whose lives are disparate and distinct. Pieced together to form a story, they allow the consumer to accommodate both them- selves and others into a pre-existing or developing narrative.

The relevance to militant Salafism is likely already clear. Movement and media represent the two key conditions that allow the political imaginary to have a greater role in political life today. They often work in conjunction with one another, and their inter- action can be seen across the world. Media and movement are increasingly significant forces through which we conceive and recon- ceive of ourselves, and thus inform political life.

As people travel in ever-greater numbers and witness images of events and people from all parts of the world, the opportunities to identify with people and issues according to factors other than shared territory and experiences increase. In so doing, the distinction between global and local is increasingly blurred.

Events and people from around the world are part of the narratives of people's lives in a way that earlier would have been both unimaginable and impossible. Transnationalism - the global is local The pervasion of movement and media makes it easier for trans- national affinity to be established and maintained. This can take many forms, one of which is a particular type of ethnonationalism — a nationalism without borders, territory or face-to-face contact.

In such cases individuals can and do imagine themselves significantly linked with others who subscribe to, or have ascribed to them, a kindred ethnonationalism, and order themselves and their actions accordingly. There are several good contemporary examples of this political imaginary predicated on the interaction between movement 53 Ibid. Theirs is a demand for the sovereignty of a people, defined by their religion, in the face of alleged persecution by the Indian state and its majority Hindu population.

It is those members of the Sikh diaspora who support the cause who are particularly illuminating here. They are unlikely to have experienced the actions against which they inveigh, and which circulated images of torture and killing are held to represent.

Indeed they are unlikely to have met any who have. Yet a firm and particular imagination of themselves as a part of a conflict is asserted. The images allow individuals from Canada, Europe and Australia, many of whom have neither visited the proposed Sikh nation nor shared in the suffering offered to them as a fact in the pictures, to take those elements and sew them into a coherent imagined life.

A nostalgia without memory 69 Brian Axel asks how it was that some Sikhs overcame differences in experience and geography to consider themselves as part of the same community. Such nostalgia may not be the result of entirely objective remembrances, but on the whole it is informed by the memory of directly experienced events. Even for those who have never actually known the referent object — the children of Rwandan refugees in Burundi, Turkish migrants in Germany, and the hyphenated multitudes in the United States — there is a reference point of something that has existed and continues to do so.

That for which they are fighting, and that of which they feel a part, is usually seen as fairly static. This is one of the reasons why Irish Americans continued in their support for the IRA long after increasing numbers in Northern Ireland and certainly in the Republic considered it anachronistic.

Even in such cases, however, nostalgia produces a different reality to that which is supposedly remembered. Hoskins makes this point in reference to a phenomenon in Germany. Appadurai, Modernity at Large, p. New York: The Free Press, , p. The Khalistan case points even further along this line of nostalgic politics.

This is one directed not towards some- thing that existed and is remembered through generations. Rather it is a nostalgia for an imagined politics, only elements of which may have been a reality and even these not experienced by the Sikh diaspora. This politics is given life through the imagination and actions based upon it.

So it is too with militant Salafism. Militant Salafism and the politics of nostalgia The militant transnational Khalistani example has much in common with the militant Salafist movement. Some from the Sikh diaspora reimagine themselves as a member of an international Khalistani Sikh community and not simply as a Sikh , standing in opposition to the Indian state. For militant Salafists, the reconfiguration is of a member of the ummab in opposition to a hostile West.

How was it possible that a specific imagined self as a part of an imagined community the global ummah arose? What are the global socio- logical forces that facilitate such a political imaginary? The answer has much to do with the media and movement in the production of a politics of nostalgia that depends upon something other than direct experience. Indeed this is even more the case with militant Salafism than it is for the Khalistani example.

Whilst in the latter there is a desire to establish a homeland in a definite area and in which fellow campaigners live, this is not so obviously the case with militant Salaf- ists. There, deterritorialisation lends itself to an even more deterritor- ialised notion of political community. That militant Salafism is a product of the political imaginary is not to argue that the ummah is a work of fiction.

The ummah, central to the militant Salafist project, is the result of a political imaginary of a nostalgia without memory. It demands a little more explanation. A nostalgia without memory 71 The ummah Many believers may take umbrage at the idea of the ummah as a work of the imagination. Islam has always had global aspirations - a religion for all humans for all time — and the ummah is neither an innovation of militants nor a concern only they hold strongly.

Theoretically at least, the notion of a body of believers sharing something far greater than that on which they differ has been accepted by swathes of Muslims for 1, years. The idea that the ummah is characterised as a function of the imagination should therefore be made explicit. It is being used in the same way as Anderson does with the nation state. The ummah is a multitude of people whose paths will never cross and who share few direct experiences with others within it.

It is given life only through people's belief that it exists. The notion of Muslims and an ummah as a global community uniting its members is reduced in the hands of militants from one of believers, to narrowly defined righteous believers. It extends only to those who think and act similarly to themselves. On the whole, militant Salafists do not have a concern with all Muslims, but only with those whose actions, or whose experience of the actions of others, appear to confirm the idea of a battle between Islam and the West.

See for example K. Armstrong, Islam: A Short History. New York: Modern Library, Another account — brief but informative — is A. Esposito ed. Oxford University Press, London: Penguin, , p. See A. Strathern, P. Stewart, and N. Whitehead eds. London: Pluto Press, , p. They are given life through an imagination that is then acted upon. That in turn depends upon conditions of possibility in an era of globalised modernity.

Key amongst these conditions are movement and media. These are the subjects of the following two chapters. See M. So it is too for the ummah. In turn, this is constructed in large part on two key conditions of possi- bility - movement and media. Both serve as vehicles of both disloca- tion and relocation, facilitating the very specific militant Salafist political imaginary.

It is media that is considered now. This is useful, but such an emphasis comes at the expense! Some of the many examples of writing on the two are E. Coll and S. Arquilla and D. Ronfeldt eds. There have also been a number of works on the ever-greater role of the global media more generally, many of which are extremely sophisticated and insightful. This recognition that questions of politics are significantly impacted by electronic media is a welcome one. The increase in the reach, accessibility, immediacy and content of this latest technological intrusion into our lives has developed alternatives in terms of the constructions of identity and politics.

An appreciation of this change is indispensable for properly understanding the phenomenon of mili- tant Salafism. To explore media and its role in facilitating militant Salafism, this chapter is divided into two parts. The first considers a number of cases of militant Salafism in the West and their use of electronic media. Whilst only a small proportion of what might have been included, it is sufficient to illustrate the prevalence and power of media in the lives of militants.

The second part provides an analysis of that use of the media in the production of a political imaginary. Largely made up of second-generation Dutch of Moroccan background, it was loose, haphazard and contingent. Ignatieff, Virtual War: Kosovo and Beyond. London: Chatto and Windus, ; C.

Western militant Salafism and hypermedia 75 entered the public consciousness when one of its members, Mohammed Bouyeri, murdered Theo van Gogh as he biked to work. In accordance with his self-ascribed role as a provocateur, van Gogh had issued various insulting remarks about numerous individuals, groups and beliefs, Islam included.

Indeed, shortly before his death he had teamed up with the politician Ayaan Hirsi Ali to make a film entitled Submission - a controversial movie, but by no means exceptionally so for van Gogh. Ali and van Gogh argued that the film was intended to draw attention to the misogyny of Islamism. Such activities excited considerable ire amongst many Dutch Muslims, and hostility was widely expressed, particularly in less public forums.

These include plots for further attacks, and links with militants in other countries. Hypermedia played a central role in the militancy of the members of the Hofstad group. Members of the Hofstad group would meet twice weekly. Origin- ally this was in a phone centre in Schiedam, in the south of the country. That is not to argue that the plot to kill van Gogh was a result of Submission.

The attack was discussed by the group and decided upon by Bouyeri before the film was made public. When he was absent, Mohammed Bouyeri assumed responsibility. Amongst these, footage from Chechnya and Iraq was particularly prevalent. There was also a preoccupation with recordings of beheadings. On these they would watch material downloaded from Islamist websites, sites that showed executions in the Middle East, foreign infidels having their throats cut by holy warriors wrapped in scarves and balaclavas.

Mohammed, according to a man who attended these sessions, got visibly excited by these grisly spectacles. These were taken from a Saudi website edited in London. Apart from detailed images of men of various nationalities being beheaded, the CD contained pictures of a struggling man slowly having his head sawed off, taken from a Dutch porn site.

It was not only in face-to-face meetings that hypermedia exerted a significance. As the twenty-first century was ushered in, Islamist websites in the Netherlands had been established abroad and were concerned largely with events overseas.

Aiming at a specific con- stituency, Arabic was the lingua franca and the Middle East was the focus. Nouredine el Fatmi was an illegal immigrant in the Netherlands who shared a house and membership of the Hofstad group with Bouyeri. Western militant Salafism and hypermedia 77 Dutch jihadists, albeit still with a foreign orientation. In the Netherlands experienced a surge in interest in militant Salafism on the Internet.

Several sites were focused almost exclusively on bringing violent jihad to the Netherlands, and displayed little variation in terms of content. This was done through an MSN group that was set up and controlled by one if its members, Ahmed Hamdi. The same activities were undertaken by the same known individuals. Texts were translated and distributed, conflict footage exchanged and threatening letters to key Dutch political figures drafted.

It was not the only militant group in the Netherlands, and many members were involved with other groups of militants, often loose coalitions who came together in Internet chat rooms. The best way to conceive of the militant milieu in the Netherlands in the early twenty-first century is of several fluid and overlapping groups, all of whom shared some information and memberships, with members of the Hofstad group exerting particular influence in establishing the terms of debate and with a perceived willingness to act upon their words.

In practice, this problem may be due to an incorrect signal received from the sensor. P Code P results from mechanical damage to the engine fluid pressure controller. It is necessary to check the sensor and the quality of its connection to the wiring. P Code P appears as a result of leaving the allowable range of signals from the boost pressure sensor. P Malfunction in an electric chain of the controller of position of shutters of exhaust shafts.

P Error in a car with a V70, VR6 engine and other versions reports a malfunction of the gas pedal sensor. Data coming from the device to the microprocessor module is out of range. P Code reports a malfunction in the gas pedal position controller. A malfunction may be accompanied by a reduced signal from the G P Code P appears as a result of an increased signal coming from the refrigerant temperature controller at the output of the radiator device G P Code P appears when the position sensor of the boost pressure regulator is not working properly.

Most likely, an incorrect pulse is coming from the device. P The code indicates damage to the power line of the heating device of the second oxygen sensor installed in row 1. P The combination appears when a short circuit in the heating circuit of the second oxygen regulator to ground. P The combination reports damage to the wiring of the heating device of the first lambda probe installed in the second row.

P Malfunction in the first lambda probe installed in row 1. An error indicates that the response time of the device is too high. P Lack of activity from the first lambda probe installed in row 1. Most likely, the sensor itself is faulty. P Code P appears as a result of a malfunction in the electrical circuit of the heating element of the first oxygen controller. The lambda probe is installed in the first row of cylinders. P Failure of the electrical circuit of the second oxygen controller installed in the first row.

P Low speed signal transmitted from the second lambda probe installed in the first row of cylinders. P Code P indicates a failure in the electrical circuit of the heating device of the second oxygen controller located in the first row.

P Open circuit of the heating system of the first oxygen sensor installed in the first row. P Damage or breakage in the power line of the heating device of the second lambda probe installed in the first row. P The control unit determined that the maximum control limit of the lambda corrector installed after the catalyst was reached. P Code P reports a broken circuit and an inappropriate signal current from the first oxygen controller installed in row No.

P Short circuit to the positive terminal in the circuit supplying the first oxygen controller. P The code indicates a break in the wiring that connects the first oxygen controller installed in row 1. P Fault in the electrical circuit of the first oxygen sensor installed in the second row.

P The control unit receives a signal about re-enriched combustible mixture from the oxygen sensor. This refers to the device number 1, located in the first row. P Malfunction of the linear oxygen sensor installed in the first row. The problem is the wrong signal coming from the device, so wiring diagnostics are required.

The combination indicates a malfunction in the operation of oxygen controller No. A malfunction can lead to leaner air-fuel mixture. This refers to the device installed in row 1. The control unit clarifies that the problem is related to the reference voltage. A detailed diagnosis of the device is required, since there can be many causes of a malfunction, ranging from oxidized contacts to crashes in the program. Literally, the combination translates as "adjusting the position of the intake camshaft is too slow.

The cause of the problem, as a rule, is either a phase-shift valve or a phase-shifting clutch. Sometimes a malfunction is the wear or damage of the chain connecting the shafts. An error indicates a malfunction in the operation of the actuator motor of the right warm air damper. This refers to the element located at the rear of the center console.

This refers to a controller installed in the rear right brake circuit. Diagnostics of the N sensor is required. It is necessary to check the operation of the electronic controller connected to the gearbox. The cause of the problem may be damage to the wiring or disconnection of the contact.

A detailed check of the controller mounted on the rear right wheel is required. The speed controller G44 is missing or there is no signal coming from it. Detailed diagnostics of the G93 device is required. The device works too softly, the spring may be damaged. This refers to the controller mounted on the front bumper on the right. A detailed diagnosis of the internal regulator G is required.

It is necessary to check the generator regulator relay and the battery. Detailed diagnostics of the J device is required. Detailed diagnostics of digital interfaces and the control unit are required. Lack of communication can be caused by various reasons, from poor contact to a faulty immobilizer antenna.

With such a problem, difficulties in starting the engine are possible. If the malfunction appeared after installing the anti-theft system, it is necessary to install the bypass block module. You can independently identify this error, since when it appears, the engine does not start. A complete check of the sensor is required, starting from the wiring of the contacts and ending with the wiring check.

The cause of the problem is the G88 device, therefore, a detailed diagnosis of this part is required. The cause of the problem may lie in the common on-board network, or on a certain circuit. First you need to check the battery and generator. If the diagnostics showed that the voltage is in the acceptable range, then testing of each wire connected to the microprocessor is required.

Most likely, the reason is the malfunctioning of one of the oxygen controllers. With such a problem, difficulties with gear shifting are possible. The control unit reports a malfunction of the Climatronic rear control and display panel Climatronic.

The user needs to make a detailed diagnosis of the E module. The user needs to perform diagnostics and check the integrity of the contacts on the G device. The problem may be accompanied by a burning indicator on the dashboard.

Detailed diagnostics of the E24 device is required. This refers to the product mounted on the front passenger seat. The user needs to diagnose device N The error can manifest itself in the form of code It is necessary to check the operation of device N The problem may be the oxidation of the contacts on the bulb power wiring. The control unit reports problems with the operation of terminal No. The combination may appear in error video Detailed diagnostics of the G device is required.

This refers to the device located at the outlet of the radiator. Diagnostics of the sensor is required, its contact with the vehicle electrical system. A malfunction indicates problems in the operation of the high pressure controller for the electromagnetic coupling F A full check of the F84 device is required. With such a problem, incorrect engine operation is possible. A detailed sensor check is required with all wires and connectors. Sometimes the cause of the problem is damage to the insulation layer on the conductor supplying the sensor.

Detailed diagnostics of the J39 device is required. This refers to the rear device V You may need to update the firmware of the module, for this you will have to contact specialists. Perhaps the problem lies in the selector of the transmission unit, but it can also be in the gearbox control unit. The problem is wiring, so you need to start the diagnosis with the battery and generator.

The error can appear in the form of code The problem is typical only for vehicles in the back of a convertible. The control unit detected a malfunction when the car's roof was folded. The cause of the malfunction may be damage to the wiring or malfunction of the transmission control unit. There may be a malfunction in one of the sensors.

The cause of the problem may be a malfunction of the ABS control module, as well as poor contact. Most likely, the cause of the problem is the siren. If the circuit of the device is equipped with a fuse, then the element must be checked.

The problem may be disconnecting the contact. Perhaps the cause of the problem is the incorrect adjustment of the sensor sensitivity parameter. In addition, the malfunction may be a defect in the connector. It is necessary to test the contacts and wiring, if they are intact, then the product must be replaced. Most likely, the cause of the problem is the immobilizer. A detailed diagnosis of the engine blocker is required. The problem appears on vehicles with automatic transmission.

Most likely, the torque converter itself is faulty, but other transmission components must also be checked. It is necessary to check the operation of the device G A detailed diagnosis of the N device is required. The reason must be sought in the wiring or sensors.

Detailed diagnostics of the N are required. To throw an error, it is recommended to clean the device. The first thing to do in such cases is to check the contacts on the V64 mechanism. A detailed check of the connector and all its contacts is required. The cause of the problem may be a malfunction of the antenna, as well as damage or disconnection of one of the connectors. A detailed check is required. This problem is not critical, so the use of the car is allowed.

Diagnostics of all contacts and microprocessor loops is required. It is possible to turn off the unit due to vibration or damage to the contacts on its connector. The problem is due to the lack of communication between the microprocessor and the transmission control module. A detailed check of the digital interface and testing of all contacts and wires is required.

If there is no ignition, the power unit will not start. The user needs to test all components of the ignition system. First of all, it is recommended to check the power contacts of the device. Most likely, the reason is damage to the device itself or its poor contact with the on-board network. Possible oxidation of the contact elements on the block. The sensor number is not indicated, so the user will have to diagnose all the regulators.

The user needs to test the operation of the G device. Verification of V is required. The latter is located on the brake booster. To remove this error, you need to check the connector pins, maybe they are just dirty. Detailed diagnosis of the G is required.

The user needs to diagnose the J device. A possible cause may be a malfunction of the bulb or a damaged contact. It is necessary to diagnose the operation of fuses and relays, it is also necessary to verify the presence of antifreeze. Detailed diagnosis of the V is required. This problem belongs to the category of electronic malfunctions, so first of all, you need to check all the connectors.

The control unit recorded that the installation position of the controller does not correspond to the normalized parameters. Perhaps the problem is jamming the device. The cause of the problem may be a breakdown of the safety device or relay. To clear the error, detailed wiring diagnostics are required. Contact oxidation or pin damage is possible. There is no periodic signal from the controller. Perhaps the problem is not in the structural mechanisms of the device, but in the immobilizer.

The lock does not detect the signal from the key, as a result of which indicates a malfunction of the lock. A detailed check of the E device is required. The reason should be sought in the handbrake sensor, as well as brake pads. The user must first check the operation of the sensor on the "handbrake". Most likely, the cause is a mechanical malfunction.

It is necessary to check the integrity of the housing, as well as the quality of the contacts, damage to the coupling is possible. If the defect is serious, the motor must be replaced. An error reports a malfunction of the inlet flap. The combination indicates a malfunction of the main relay. In cars of g and other years of release, the engine may not start with such a problem. A problem indicates a malfunction of the particulate filter. The problem indicates an incorrect operation of the inlet flap position controller.

An incorrect signal is coming from the device, which may be due to electrics. A problem indicates a malfunction in the G83 coolant temperature sensor. The reason should be sought in the controller itself, as well as in its contact with the connector. Diagnostics of the integrity of all highways and pipe is required, the weakened clamps must be tightened. The error is not permanent. Diagnostics of all engine elements is required.

A possible cause may be a malfunction of the components of the ignition system - candles or high-voltage wires. The cause of the problem may be a short circuit for damage to the wiring. A detailed diagnosis of the control unit is required. The cause of the problem may be in the sensors or pumps, you need to check the car in detail. The control unit recorded that the nominal value of the parameters has not been reached. The signal from the device is too high.

A check of the sensor and its wiring is required. The error reports a malfunction in the first row of cylinders. There were problems with the adaptation of the mixture under load. The user needs to check the operation of the device G The control unit recorded failures in the adaptation of the air-fuel component in the first range. A signal is received from the device that goes beyond the control limits. It is necessary to check the contacts of element J A detailed diagnosis of the F36 device is required.

The signal coming from the device is much lower than the permissible parameter. With such a problem, difficulties with starting the power unit are possible. Blocking the module could occur as a result of malfunctions in the immobilizer. If this error appears on the screen, it may be related to the operation of the air suspension. To remove, check all sensors and controllers. The transmission control unit sends incorrect messages to the microprocessor module, which the latter cannot decrypt.

A possible cause may be a lack of communication or damage to the bus. The microprocessor module does not receive messages from the control unit of the transmission unit. It is necessary to check the gearbox and test all the wires connected to the device. The cause of the problem may be pillow sensors.

Detailed testing of the device is required, including verification of its contacts and wires. Detailed data bus diagnostics required. It is possible to disconnect the contact or damage one of the contact tracks on the loop. The device does not receive a control pulse. Damage to the wiring or breakage is possible.

The problem is locking the device or having difficulty running. To find the exact cause, you need to check all the components. This refers to the sensor installed at the output of the G83 engine cooling radiator. For cars in and other years of production, an error indicates a lack of communication with the control module by the instrument cluster.

When it appears, the control unit is recommended to diagnose fault combinations in the J control module. The microprocessor module needs diagnostics, first of all you need to check its connector and wires. The control unit ECU indicates a malfunction in the dual clutch gearbox. P20EE Code P 20 EE indicates low efficiency in the operation of the catalytic system, the problem should be sought in the first bank.

U Lack of communication with the gear shift control module. A possible cause may be poor contact or disconnection of the block from the transmission unit. U Loss of communication between the microprocessor-based motor control module and the ABS unit. It is necessary to check the integrity of all buses and connectors, to test the quality of the connection. A possible problem may be a malfunction of one of the units. U Malfunction of the control module of the instrument cluster, an incorrect signal is supplied from the device.

U On Passat B7 and other data models, the code indicates a loss of communication sequence for second-class devices. Exact equipment is not indicated, so you will have to check all the wires connected to the microprocessor. U Loss of communication sequence for second-class devices. In other words, the problem must be sought in electronics and wire damage. UF00 UF Faulty brake control module.

The causes of the problem can be many, ranging from poor contact of the sensors and ending with a lack of fluid in the expansion tank. PA00 PA Arbitrary shutdown of engine cylinders. The manufacturer does not provide accurate information to resolve this problem, so the user will have to independently diagnose the power unit. L01 The combination indicates a malfunction in the cruise control system, its activation is not possible.

If everything works in a car, then check the functionality of the microprocessor module. To eliminate the cause on engines 2E and others, it is necessary to diagnose the operation of the switch on the steering wheel. The lamp is on, it is necessary to test the diode itself, as well as its wiring. The cause of the problem may be a malfunction of the adsorber. To clear the error, check the quality of the connections of all components.

The user needs to test the operation of the potentiometer G A red indicator may light on the dashboard. To determine and correct the error, it is necessary to diagnose the turbocharged unit. This combination appears in the presence of other faults. P10A4 Malfunction of the intake flap P10A9 Malfunction of the electromagnetic clutch of the compressor device PD Spontaneous opening in the operation of the clutch system.

P The control unit detected an incorrect ratio in the intake air pressure P Code P indicates a decrease in pressure in the fuel system. Possible causes of the malfunction: - damage to high or low pressure lines; - damage to connectors or electrical harnesses; - wear of a pusher fuel filter of a high pressure; - nozzle clogging; - malfunction of the fuel system controller; - failure of the pressure control valve.

P Code P appears as a result of an incorrect pulse from the throttle potentiometer G69 P Codes P or P appear as a result of depletion of the air-fuel mixture. P Combination results from the enrichment of the air-fuel mixture in the first row of cylinders P Code P or P indicates a reduced boost pressure.

The reasons that led to this error: - reduced pressure of the engine fluid in the power unit; - failure of a turbine or discharge device; - malfunctions in the EGR system EGR ; - clogged air filter or air intake in the intake manifold; - breakdown of boost pressure controller. P Combination P reports misfire in the first cylinder of the engine. P The combination P appears as a result of the appearance of misfire in the second cylinder P Code P indicates misfire in the third cylinder of the car engine.

P Misfire Detected in the fourth engine cylinder P Malfunction of the fourth cylinder of the engine, the problem may be a malfunction of the ignition control system P Code P appears when the throughput in the exhaust gas recirculation system is reduced. P Incorrect control range in the exhaust gas recirculation system P Code P indicates a decrease in throughput in the operation of the secondary air supply system P The combination of P appears as a result of reduced efficiency in the operation of the catalyst system located in the front row.

P Code literally stands for "incorrect flow in the system for monitoring the removal of fuel vapor" P Microprocessor module detected a serious leak in the fuel tank ventilation system P Code P reports a minor leak in the fuel tank ventilation system P Code P appears as a result of reduced throughput of the secondary air supply system.

P Engine idle above maximum P Invalid signal from throttle control module P Invalid signal received by the microprocessor about the engine speed P Wrong gear ratio in fourth speed P Error P with severe slip of the clutch in the clutch system. P Code P indicates an incorrect fuel pressure control range P The appearance of code indicates an increased internal resistance of the second probe installed in the first row P Re-enrichment of the mixture in the first row of cylinders Under the load of the power unit, its adaptation does not pass.

P Invalid load accounting data P Re-depletion of the mixture in the first row of cylinders The problem is related to problems with adaptation. P Code appears as a result of re-enrichment of the mixture in the first row of cylinders P Incorrect control range in the injection timing control system P Too low fuel level in the tank P Invalid signal from the second cylinder injector pump valve.

P Code appears when you exit the control range of the signal coming from the valve of the pump nozzle of the fifth cylinder P Malfunction in the cooling system. The reasons for this error can be many: - breakdown of one of the antifreeze temperature sensors disconnecting the connector, contact oxidation, wire damage ; - lack of refrigerant in the expansion tank; - boiling antifreeze, leading to overheating of the power unit; - lack of tightness associated with damage to the nozzles; - errors in the functioning of the control unit; - malfunction of the thermostat or its incorrect operation.

P Pressure drop in the pipe between the turbocharged unit and the throttle body P On the Volkswagen Passat CC with a gasoline engine and other cars, this code indicates a violation of the control range in the exhaust gas recirculation system.

P Too low throughput in the secondary air supply system, fixed in the first row of cylinders P Code P indicates a mechanical failure of the brake booster vacuum system P Malfunction of the throttle control system P The literal translation of the error is "incorrect ratio of the height and pressure controller signals in the intake manifold.

Possible malfunctions: - breakdown of the control module by the motor blocker; - damage to the immobilizer antenna; - chip malfunction; - damage to the wiring, oxidation of the contacts on the connector; - the use of auto-start alarms, which led to a conflict between the standard immobilizer and the additional one. P Invalid signal coming from the power relay terminal J P Code P indicates the absence of messages from the control module anti-lock system.

P Code P indicates malfunctions in the intake manifold flaps P The combination indicates an excess of the depletion limit of the air-fuel mixture. P Malfunctions in the operation of the throttle P Injector Power s V: Short to Ground P Code P indicates a lean mixture in the first row of engine cylinders when it is idling P A lean mixture in the first row of the engine cylinders when idling P Code P reports that the intake flaps of the first row of cylinders do not close P lean mixture in the cylinders of the power unit at speeds above idle P Code indicates a malfunction in the cooling system.

P Mechanical damage turbocharger bypass N P No turbocharger pressure detected, mechanical failure P Turbocharger malfunction P Code P indicates a leak in the intake system. P Code P indicates an incorrect torque pulse of the power unit A P Code or indicates a short to ground or damage to the wiring of the second boost pressure control valve N P The basic settings of the mechanical stop of the intake flaps in the closed position have been violated P Code reports that the pulse from the inlet flap is out of range P On VWs T4, T5 and other data versions, the code indicates a malfunction in the intake manifold flaps.

P Code indicates a malfunction in the valve timing P Code P is literally translated as "the nominal value in the shift of the valve timing to the earlier side has not been reached. P Code appears as a result of a short to ground in the valve timing circuit. Faulty VW crankshaft and camshaft controllers P Code P indicates a malfunction in the crankshaft position sensor, the possible causes of the problem: - failure of the controller itself; - damage to the wiring through which the sensor is connected; - clogged connector or oxidation of contacts on the block; - moisture on the plug; - malfunction of the control unit.

P Damage to the camshaft sensor P Incorrect signal or failure of the camshaft position sensor. P Code indicates the absence of a signal from the camshaft position controller G40 Incorrect signal coming from the camshaft position controller. Possible causes of the problem: - malfunction of the wiring supplying the sensor; - moisture entering the cable connector that is connected to the controller; - failure of the device itself; - damage or oxidation of contacts on the sensor block; - cable wear.

VW Malfunctions in the work of electricians and electronics PB The number of attempts to reverse gear has been exceeded. PC Gearbox system locked in first gear PB Short to ground in the tank heater circuit P The combination appears at the end of the display of trouble codes on the display P Open control wiring of the fuel supply controller. P Open or damaged electrical circuit of the heating system P Malfunction in a circuit of the bypass valve of a turbocharger P Code P indicates a malfunction in the solenoid valve control boost P Code appears when the wiring is damaged by exhaust valves P Increased signal coming from the second intake air temperature controller P The combination P appears as a result of a reduced signal coming from the G70 mass air flow sensor.

P No signal from the mass air flow sensor P The control unit receives an invalid signal from the engine coolant temperature controller P Damage to the power line or short circuit to plus fuel temperature controller G81 P Damage to the power line or short circuit of the contacts on the wiring of the fuel pressure sensor G P Incorrect signal coming from the engine fluid temperature controller.

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Matchbox twenty mad season torrent When it appears, the control unit is recommended to diagnose fault combinations in the J control module. He had been her favourite child. Global forces Of the conditions of possibilities that have had the most powerful effect on the militant Salafist political imaginary, two are particularly significant. It does so because of the alienation of some individuals from their society and a resultant desire for retribution. P Code P appears as a result of an increased signal coming from the refrigerant temperature controller at the output of the radiator device G If the flowmeter is clogged, you can try to clean it using a special tool for the carburetor. P Failure of the electrical source supplying the nozzle of the fourth cylinder.
Basic electrical theory mike holt torrent They often work in conjunction with one another, and their inter- action can be seen across the world. Language 5 of militant Salafists in the West — including a database of Western militants — and the consequences it heralds in facilitating particular identities. It is for that reason that there are similar portrayals of the background of another of the would-be bombers, Yassin Hassan Omar. There 00282 vcds torrent be a malfunction in one of the sensors. To eliminate the cause on engines 2E and others, it is necessary to diagnose the operation of the switch on the steering wheel. The control unit indicates that this malfunction occurs when the engine is idling.
Patch nero 8 torrent There may be no reaction when you press the gas. VW Lambda probe malfunctions P The code indicates damage to the power line of the heating device of the second oxygen sensor installed in row 1 P The combination appears when this web page short circuit in the heating circuit of the second oxygen regulator to ground P The combination reports damage to the wiring of the heating device of the first lambda probe installed in the second row P Failure in the electrical circuit of the first oxygen controller installed in row 1 P Malfunction in the first lambda probe installed in row 1. The Radical Loser is an individ- ual who perceives a sense of frustrated personal entitlement and who pursues 00282 vcds torrent incomprehensible violence as an act aimed not at redress, but revenge at those deemed culpable. P Code P is associated with a short circuit in the wiring supplying the G72 temperature controller. The doors to the middle class were closing in his face. London: Zed Books,p.
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Torrent data rescue mac Sageman, Understanding Terror Networks, p. P Code literally stands for "incorrect flow in the system for monitoring the removal of fuel vapor" P Microprocessor module detected a serious leak in the fuel tank ventilation system P Code P reports a minor leak in the fuel tank ventilation system P Code P appears as a result of reduced throughput of the secondary air supply system. These life narratives follow a similar pattern. Cesari, Islam and Democracy Meet, p. This is deemed to be different than was the case for earlier generations, who also undoubtedly fared worse than many of their contemporaries.
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