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Hercules totally defeated them, and gave Hippolyte, their queen, to Theseus for a wife. The race seems to have been exterminated after this battle. At the spring festival the head of each family led an animal, usually a pig or ram, decked with oak boughs, round his grounds, and offered milk and new wine.
After harvest there was another festival, at which Ceres was presented with the first-fruits of the season. See Ceres. He was greatly skilled in music; and it is said that, at the sound of his lute, the stones arranged themselves so regularly as to make the walls of the city of Thebes. She was the mother of Triton, a sea god. He was a son of Neptune, and was killed by Pollux.
A son of Neptune, who left a cup of wine to hunt a wild boar which killed him, and the wine was untasted. The first Ancile was supposed to have fallen from heaven in answer to the prayer of Numa Pompilius. It was kept with the greatest care, as it was prophesied that the fate of the Roman people would depend upon its preservation. Each time that Hercules threw him the giant gained fresh strength from touching the earth, so Hercules lifted him off the ground and squeezed him to death.
Jupiter, disguised as a satyr, led her astray and corrupted her. Apis , a name given to Jupiter by the inhabitants of the Lower Nile. Also the miraculous ox, worshiped in Egypt. Afterward called Serapis, the greatest god of the Egyptians. This famous god, some time King of Arcadia, was the son of Jupiter and Latona. He was known by several names, but principally by the following: — Sol the sun ; Cynthius, from the mountain called Cynthus in the Isle of Delos, and this same island being his native place obtained for him the name of Delius; Delphinius, from his occasionally assuming the shape of a dolphin.
His name of Delphicus was derived from his connection with the splendid Temple at Delphi, where he uttered the famous oracles. Some writers record that this oracle became dumb when Jesus Christ was born. The Greeks called him Agineus, because the streets were under his guardianship, and he was called Pythius from having killed the serpent Python. Apollo is usually represented as a handsome young man without beard, crowned with laurel, and having in one hand a bow, and in the other a lyre.
The favorite residence of Apollo was on Mount Parnassus, a mountain of Phocis, in Greece, where he presided over the Muses. The consecration of a god. The ceremony of deification. Apollo was reputed to have been King of Arcadia. She fled from Alpheus, a river god, and was enabled to escape by being turned by Diana into a rivulet which ran underground.
She was as virtuous as she was beautiful. This name was given to the fifty heroes who sailed to Colchis in the ship Argo, under the command of Jason, to fetch the Golden Fleece. He was charged by Juno to watch Io, but, being slain by Mercury, was changed by Juno into a peacock. After enabling Theseus to get out of the Labyrinth by means of a clew of thread, she fled with him to Naxos, where he ungratefully deserted her; but Bacchus wooed her and married her, and the crown of seven stars which he gave her was turned into a constellation.
There is a pretty fable which has made the name of Arion famous. Once when traveling from Lesbos his companions robbed him, and proposed to throw him into the sea. He entreated the seamen to let him play upon his harp before they threw him overboard, and he played so sweetly that the dolphins flocked round the vessel.
For this act the dolphin was raised to heaven as a constellation. He was a celebrated hunter. This was the Grecian name of Diana, and the festivals at Delphi were called Artemisia. The bottles were used in the games to jump on.
The oracle told her that marriage would be fatal to her, but, being very beautiful, she had many suitors. She was a very swift runner, and, to get rid of her admirers, she promised to marry any one of them who should outstrip her in a race, but that all who were defeated should be slain. Hippomenes, however, with the aid of Venus, was successful. That goddess gave him three golden apples, one of which he dropped whenever Atalanta caught up to him in the race.
She stopped to pick them up, and he was victorious and married her. They were both afterward turned into lions by Cybele, for profaning her temple. The goddess of revenge, also called the goddess of discord and all evil.
She was banished from heaven by her father Jupiter. Atlas , was King of Mauritania, now Morocco, in Africa. He was also a great astronomer. He is depicted with the globe on his back, his name signifying great toil or labor. For his inhospitality to Perseus that king changed him into the mountain which bears his name of Atlas. A chain of mountains in Africa is called after him, and so is the Atlantic Ocean. Both the Pleiades and the Hyades are celestial constellations.
It was cleansed by turning the river Alpheus through it. This was a means adopted by the Romans of forming a judgment of futurity by the flight of birds, and the officiating priest was called an augur. She was daughter of Sol, the sun, and was the mother of the stars and winds. She is represented as riding in a splendid golden chariot drawn by white horses. The goddess loved Tithonus, and begged the gods to grant him immortality, but forgot to ask at the same time that he should not get old and decrepit.
See Tithonus. The modern name is Belphegor. He is said to have married Ariadne, daughter of Minos, King of Crete, after she was deserted by Theseus. The most distinguished of his children is Hymen, the god of marriage. The god of wine is usually represented as crowned with vine and ivy leaves. In his left hand is a thyrsus, a kind of javelin, having a fir cone for the head, and being encircled with ivy or vine. His chariot is drawn by lions, tigers, or panthers. A famous horse given by Neptune to Peleus as a wedding present, and was afterward given to Achilles.
The priestesses of Bacchus were sometimes so called. The name means the Queen of Heaven. The god of good success, a rural divinity. The great Indian deity, represented with four heads looking to the four quarters of the globe. A name of Bacchus, referring to the use of grapes and honey. He is the personification of a blacksmith. Primitively, a pagan deity, the Vishnu of the Hindoos. A niece of Sol, mentioned by Ovid. She shed so many tears for unrequited love that she was turned into a fountain.
The mysterious rites connected with the worship of these deities were so obscene that most writers refer to them as secrets which it was unlawful to reveal. He was the reputed inventor of letters, and his alphabet consisted of sixteen letters. The rod carried by Mercury. It has two winged serpents entwined round the top end. In that form she was hunted by her son Arcas, who would have killed her had not Jupiter turned him into a he-bear.
The nymph and her son form the constellations known as the Great Bear and Little Bear. The Muse who presided over epic poetry and rhetoric. She is generally depicted using a stylus and wax tablets, the ancient writing materials. A peculiar cup with ears, used in drinking the health of the deities. A name of Jupiter, from the Capitoline hill, on the top of which a temple was built and dedicated to him.
The Ethiopian queen who set her beauty in comparison with that of the Nereides, who thereupon chained her to a rock and left her to be devoured by a sea-monster, but she was delivered by Perseus. See Andromeda. One of the fountains in Mount Parnassus, sacred to the Muses. He went with Jason in quest of the Golden Fleece. A huntsman who had the forepart like a man, and the remainder of the body like a horse. The Centauri lived in Thessaly.
Cephalus was the type of constancy. A Greek name of Jupiter, meaning The Fulminator, from his thunderbolts. She taught Triptolemus how to grow corn, and sent him to teach the inhabitants of the earth. Ceres was the mother of Proserpine. See Ambarvalia. He was the ferryman who conveyed the spirits of the dead, in a boat, over the rivers Acheron and Styx to the Elysian Fields.
A dangerous whirlpool on the coast of Sicily. Personified, it was supposed to have been a woman who plundered travelers, but was at last killed by Hercules. Scylla and Charybdis are generally spoken of together to represent alternative dangers. A wild illusion, personified in the monster slain by Bellerophon. It had the head and breast of a lion, the body of a goat, and the tail of a serpent.
It used to vomit fire. Jupiter placed him among the stars, where he appears as Sagittarius, the Archer. The knowledge of poisonous herbs enabled her to destroy her husband, the King of the Sarmatians, for which act she was banished. One of the Muses, daughter of Jupiter and Mnemosyne. She presided over history. She was present at births, and held the distaff from which was spun the thread of life. See Atropos and Lachesis.
A name of Venus, given to her at the time of the reconciliation of the Romans and the Sabines, which was ratified near a statue of the goddess. She attempted to kill her son Orestes, but he was delivered by his sister Electra, who sent him away to Strophius. A nymph who got herself changed into a sunflower because her love of Apollo was unrequited. In the form of this flower she is still supposed to be turning toward Sol, a name of Apollo.
One of the five rivers of the infernal regions. He presided over entertainments and feasts. The symbol of Concord was two right hands joined, and a pomegranate. The goddess of peace. One of the oldest Roman goddesses. She is represented as holding a horn of plenty in one hand, and in the other a scepter, from which fruit is sprouting forth. A name given to Neptune as being the god of counsel. Another Coronis was daughter of a king of Phocis, and was changed by Athena into a crow.
They obtained the name because they were in the habit of striking themselves in their dances. A silly love-sick swain mentioned by Virgil. A name given to Mars, meaning Shaker of the Helmet. He is represented as a naked, winged boy, with a bow and arrows, and a torch. When he grew up to be a man he married Psyche. The Indian god of wealth corresponding to the Greek Plutus. The mother of the gods, and hence called Magna Mater.
She was wife of Saturn. She is sometimes referred to under the names of Ceres, Rhea, Ops, and Vesta. She is represented as riding in a chariot drawn by lions. In one hand she holds a scepter, and in the other a key. On her head is a castelated crown, to denote that she was the first to protect castles and walls with towers.
Hesiod gives their names as Arges, Brontes, and Steropes. He died of grief on the death of his friend, and was turned into a swan. The color is mentioned as being coal-black, with white legs and tail. See Cillaros. One of the nurses of Jupiter, turned by the god into a conspicuous constellation. A name of Venus, because she was worshiped in the island of Cyprus. A name of Venus, from the island to which she was wafted in the shell. They were given the name, because, like the fingers, they were ten in number.
He invented the wedge, the axe, the level, and the gimlet, and was the first to use sails. See Icarus. A god of the Philistines, half man half fish, like the mermaid. She had a son by Jupiter, who was drifted out to sea in a boat, but was saved by Polydectes and educated.
For this crime they were condemned to the task of forever trying to draw water with vessels without any bottoms. See Hypermnestra. The goddess of the earth. Apollo courted her, but she fled from him, and was, at her own request, turned into a laurel tree. See Hercules. A town on Mount Parnassus, famous for its oracle, and for a temple of Apollo.
See Delphos. He was depicted as an old man covered with moss, and was said to live underground. He is sometimes called the king of the elves and fays. He and his wife, by making a ship, survived the deluge which Jupiter sent on the earth, circa b. She was the sister of Apollo, and daughter of Jupiter and Latona. As a celestial divinity she was called Luna; as a terrestrial Diana or Dictynna; and in the infernal regions Hecate.
A daughter of Belus, King of Tyre. A name of Cybele, from a mountain where she was worshiped. He was overcome by Hercules, and himself given to the same horses as food. A name of Jupiter, from the city of Dodona. The knife used by the priests to cut up the sacrifices. From these two sisters sprang the several tribes of water nymphs. But when he languished and died she pined away from grief and died also, preserving nothing but her voice, which repeats every sound that reaches her.
Another fable makes Echo a daughter of Air and Tellus. She was partly deprived of speech by Juno, being allowed only to reply to questions. A giant sea-god, who assisted the Titans against Jupiter. A nymph who is said to have suggested to Numa all his wise laws. She became his wife, and at his death was so disconsolate, and shed so many tears, that Diana changed her into a fountain.
Religious rites in honor of Ceres, performed at Eleusis, in Attica. The temporary abode of the just in the infernal regions. The fifth heaven, the seat of the heathen deity. A shepherd, who acquired from Jupiter the faculty of being always young. One of the lovers of Diana.
One of the four horses which drew the chariot of Sol, the sun. The word is Greek, and means red. A giant who lost his right eye in an encounter with Hercules, and the left eye was destroyed by Apollo. One of the Muses, the patroness of light poetry; she presided over the triumphs and complaints of lovers, and is generally represented as crowned with roses and myrtle, and holding a lyre in her hand.
A name given to Minerva. It means the work-woman, and was given to the goddess because she was credited with having invented spinning and weaving. A Greek name of the Furies. It means Disturber of the Mind. The rascal who burnt the temple of Diana at Ephesus, thereby hoping to make his name immortal. The word is Greek, and signifies hot. A volcanic mountain, beneath which, according to Virgil , there is buried the giant Typhon, who breathes forth devouring flames.
The word means agreeable. Fame was a poetical deity, represented as having wings and blowing a trumpet. A temple was dedicated to her by the Romans. Their names were Clotho, who held the distaff; Lachesis, who turned the spindle; and Atropos, who cut the thread with the fatal shears. A rural divinity, half man and half goat. They were very similar to the Satyrs.
The Fauns attended the god Pan, and the Satyrs attended Bacchus. The wind favorable to vegetation, that is, Zephyr — the west wind. A name of Pluto, from the part of the funeral rites which consisted of purifications.
Some authors think Feronia is the same as Juno. She enjoyed perpetual youth. Her Grecian name was Chloris. She was supposed to be able to bestow riches or poverty on mankind, and was esteemed one of the most potent of the ancient goddesses. She is usually represented as standing on a wheel, with a bandage over her eyes, and holding a cornucopia. She lived in the river Cocytus, and nothing but her head was ever seen. The Scandinavian god of fertility and peace.
The patron god of Sweden and Iceland. The Saxon goddess of earthly enjoyments. The name Friday is derived from her. In Scandinavian mythology she is the goddess of marriage. Furies, The , were the three daughters of Acheron and Nox. They were the punishers of evil-doers. A sea nymph. Polyphemus, one of the Cyclops, loved her, but she disdained his attentions and became the lover of Acis, a Sicilian shepherd.
The Indian Mercury. The god of wisdom and prudence. Ganymede , a beautiful Phrygian youth, son of Tros, King of Troy. He succeeded Hebe in the office of cup-bearer to Jupiter. He is generally represented sitting on the back of a flying eagle. Genii were domestic divinities. Every man was supposed to have two of these genii accompanying him; one brought him happiness, the other misery. These guardians were destroyed by Hercules, and the cattle taken away.
A name given to Minerva, because she had blue eyes. Jason and forty-nine companions fetched back the golden fleece. See Argonauts. They petrified every one they looked at. Instead of hair their heads were covered with vipers. Perseus conquered them, and cut off the head of Medusa, which was placed on the shield of Minerva, and all who fixed their eyes thereon were turned into stone. Graces, The , were the attendants of Venus. Their names were, Aglaia, so called from her beauty and goodness; Thalia, from her perpetual freshness; and Euphrosyne, from her cheerfulness.
They are generally depicted as three cheerful maidens with hands joined, and either nude or only wearing transparent robes — the idea being that kindnesses, as personified by the Graces, should be done with sincerity and candor, and without disguise. They were supposed to teach the duties of gratitude and friendship, and they promoted love and harmony among mankind. A name given to Mars by the Romans.
It meant the warrior who defended the city against all external enemies. The Greek name of Pluto, the god of hell, the word signifying hidden, dark, and gloomy; the underworld, or infernal regions; sometimes written Ades. They made their nests on the waves, and during the period of incubation the sea was always calm. Hence the modern term Halcyon Days. The Egyptian god, whose eyes are the sun and moon. They were monsters, half-birds, half-maidens, having the heads and breasts of women, the bodies of birds, and the claws of lions.
Their names were Aello, Ocypete, and Celeno. They were loathsome creatures, living in filth, and poisoning everything they came in contact with. The Egyptian name of the god Harpocrates. He was the god of silence and secrecy. He is usually represented as a young man, holding a finger of one hand to his lips expressive of a command to preserve silence , while in the other hand he holds a cornucopia, signifying early vegetation. Harvest , see Segetia. A Roman divinity, invoked by the husbandman that the harvest might be plentiful.
She was cup-bearer to Jupiter and the gods, until she had an awkward fall at a festival, causing her to alight in an indecent posture, which so displeased Jupiter that she was deprived of her office, and Ganymede was appointed in her stead. There were two goddesses known by this name, but the one generally referred to in modern literature is Hecate, or Proserpine, the name by which Diana was known in the infernal regions.
In heaven her name was Luna, and her terrestrial name was Diana. She was a moon-goddess, and is generally represented in art with three bodies, standing back to back, a torch, a sword, and a lance in each right hand. The wife of Priam, king of Troy, and mother of Paris. Taken captive in the Trojan war, she fell to the lot of Ulysses after the destruction of Troy, and was afterwards changed into a hound.
She became the wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta, but eloped with Paris, and thus caused the Trojan War. After the death of Paris she married Deiphobus, his brother, and then betrayed him to Menelaus. She was afterward tied to a tree and strangled by order of Polyxo, king of Rhodes. A name given to the Muses, from Mount Helicon. The Grecian sun-god, or charioteer of the sun, who went home every evening in a golden boat which had wings.
Clytie was turned into this flower by Apollo. See Clytie. The episode gave the name of the Hellespont to the part of the sea where Helle was drowned, and it is now called the Dardanelles. She was the daughter of Athamas and Nephele. The goddess Juno hated him from his birth, and sent two serpents to kill him, but though only eight months old he strangled them. Third , To bring to Eurystheus the Arcadian Stag with the golden horns and brazen hoofs. Fifth , To cleanse the stable of King Augeas, in which 3, oxen had been kept for thirty years, but had never been cleaned out.
Eighth , To capture the mares of Diomedes, which breathed fire from their nostrils, and ate human flesh. Tenth , To bring to Eurystheus the flesh-eating oxen of Geryon, the monster king of Gades. Eleventh , To bring away some of the golden apples from the garden of the Hesperides. All these tasks he successfully accomplished, and, besides, he assisted the gods in their wars with the giants.
His death was brought about through his endeavors to preserve Deianira from the attacks of Nessus, the centaur, whom he killed. The centaur, before he expired, gave his mystic tunic to Deianira, who in turn gave it to Hercules, and he put it on, but his doing so brought on an illness of which he could not be cured.
There was another Hermione, daughter of Menelaus and Helen; she was betrothed to Orestes, but was carried away by Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles. A priestess of Venus, with whom Leander was so enamored that he swam across the Hellespont every night to visit her, but at last was drowned; when Hero saw the fate of her lover she threw herself into the sea and was also drowned.
Three daughters of Hesperus, King of Italy. They were appointed to guard the golden apples which Juno gave Jupiter on their wedding day. The Greek name of Vesta, the goddess of the hearth. Her father gave her a famous girdle, which Hercules was required to procure see Hercules.
She was conquered by Hercules, and given by him in marriage to Theseus. The name of two deities, one Sol, the Egyptian day god; the other, the son of Osiris and Isis. See Harpocrates. Apollo caused to spring from his blood the flower Hyacinth.
A monster serpent, which had a hundred heads. It was slain by Hercules. She was represented as a young woman giving a serpent drink out of a saucer, the serpent being twined round her arm. A beautiful boy beloved by Hercules. The nymphs were jealous of him, and spirited him away while he was drawing water for Hercules.
See Wm. He was represented as a handsome youth, holding in his hand a burning torch. The model of manly beauty, synonymous with Apollo. The personification of the sun. One of the fifty daughters of Danaus, who were collectively called the Danaides. She was the one who refused to kill her husband on the wedding night. See Danaus. The wings were fixed to the shoulders by wax. A name of Cybele, from Mount Ida, where she was worshiped.
Cybele was sometimes so called, in Cyprus, in which there is a grove sacred to Venus. A Roman name of Pan, meaning The Nightmare. See Innus. They were peculiar to some district. The Hindoo Jupiter; his wife was Indrant, who presides over the winds and thunder. Ino had two children, who could not ascend the throne while Phryxus and Helle were alive. Ino therefore persecuted them to such a degree that they determined to escape. They did so on a ram, whose hide became the Golden Fleece see Phryxus and Helle.
Ino destroyed herself, and was changed by Neptune into a sea-goddess. Jupiter courted her, and was detected by Juno, when the god turned Io into a beautiful heifer. Juno demanded the beast of Jupiter, and set the hundred-eyed Argus to watch her. Jupiter persuaded Mercury to destroy Argus, and Io was set at liberty, and restored to human shape. Juno continued her persecutions, and Io had to wander from place to place till she came to Egypt, where she became wife of King Osiris, and won such good opinions from the Egyptians that after her death she was worshiped as the goddess Isis.
Lovers used to go to his monument at Phocis and ratify their vows of fidelity. Agamemnon made a vow to Diana, which involved the sacrifice of Iphigenia, but just at the critical moment she was carried to heaven, and a beautiful goat was found on the altar in her place. Her duty was to cut the thread which detained expiring souls. She is the personification of the rainbow. See Io. The gods were so enraged at this that they turned Itys into a pheasant, Procne into a swallow, and Tereus into a hawk.
For attempting to produce thunder, Jupiter cast him into hell, and had him bound to a wheel, surrounded with serpents, which is forever turning over a river of fire. Janus presided over highways, gates, and locks, and is usually represented with two faces, because he was acquainted with the past and the future; or, according to others, because he was taken for the sun, who opens the day at his rising, and shuts it at his setting.
A brazen temple was erected to him in Rome, which was always open in time of war, and closed during peace. He was looked upon by the Greeks as the father of all mankind. See Iapetos. He went in the ship Argo with forty-nine companions, the flower of Greek youth. Jason was to tame the wild fiery bulls, and to make them plow the field of Mars; to sow in the ground the teeth of a serpent, from which would spring armed men who would fight against him who plowed the field of Mars; to kill the fiery dragon which guarded the tree on which the Golden Fleece was hung.
He took away the Golden Fleece and Medea also. Jason was accidentally killed by a beam of the ship Argo falling on him. See Triptolemus. She was married to Jupiter, and became queen of all the gods and goddesses, and mistress of heaven and earth. Juno was the mother of Mars, Vulcan, Hebe, and Lucina. She prompted the gods to conspire against Jupiter, but the attempt was frustrated, and Apollo and Neptune were banished from heaven by Jupiter.
Juno is the goddess of marriage, and the protectress of married women; and she had special regard for virtuous women. In the competition for the celebrated Golden Apple, which Juno, Venus, and Minerva each claimed as the fairest among the goddesses, Juno was much displeased when Paris gave the apple to Venus. The goddess is generally represented riding in a chariot drawn by peacocks, with a diadem on her head, and a scepter in her hand.
When quite young Jupiter rescued his father from the Titans; and afterward, with the help of Hercules, defeated the giants, the sons of earth, when they made war against heaven. Jupiter was worshiped with great solemnity under various names by most of the heathen nations. He is represented as a majestic personage seated on a throne, holding in his hands a scepter and a thunderbolt; at his feet stood a spread eagle. The point of the compass which worshipers look to during their invocations.
Thus the Sol or Sun worshipers turn to the east, where the sun rises, and the Mohammedans turn toward Mecca. George, and is still invoked by the Turks when they go to war. An Indian god, the revenger of wrongs; also called the Indian Apollo. The Arabian Circe, who had unlimited power of metamorphosis. She spun the thread of life. The dragon which guarded the apples in the garden of the Hesperides. Also the river in Arcadia to which Syrinx fled when pursued by Pan, where she was changed into a reed, and where Pan made his first pipe.
One of the husbands of Vishnu. An evil deity among the Greeks and Romans, and the great dread of their children, whom she had the credit of constantly enticing away and destroying. One of the priests of Apollo, who was, with his two sons, strangled to death by serpents, because he opposed the admission of the fatal wooden horse to Troy.
He was famous for having, with the assistance of Apollo and Neptune, built the walls of Troy. The oath stone. The Romans used to swear by Jupiter Lapis. They belonged to the lower order of Roman gods, and presided over homes and families. Their statues were generally fixed within the doors of houses, or near the hearths.
Lamps were sacred to them, as symbols of vigilance, and the dog was their sacrifice. After her death she received the name of Nemesis. The ghosts of departed souls. One of the rivers of the infernal regions, of which the souls of the departed are obliged to drink to produce oblivion or forgetfulness of everything they did or knew while alive on the earth. The name of Ino after she was transformed into a sea nymph. A Roman goddess, the chief of the funeral deities.
A Jewish myth representing a finely dressed woman who is a great enemy to new-born children. A lover in the shape of a shepherd, like Corydon; a love-sick swain. The Scandinavian Satan, the god of strife, the spirit of evil.
Written also Lok, and Loki. A daughter of Neptune, who fled from Priapus, and only escaped from him by being transformed into a lotus-plant. The impersonation of folly, changed into an ass. The goddess who presides at the birth of children. She was a daughter of Jupiter and Juno, or, according to others, of Latona. In ancient British mythology the king of the Britons. He is said to have given his name to London. The name of Diana as a celestial divinity. See Diana and Hecate. Also, the Italian goddess of the moon.
The Roman god of fertility; his festival day was 15th February, and the festivals were called Lupercalia. Execrable viands, such as were supplied to Jupiter by Lycaon. To test the divine knowledge of the god he served up human flesh, which Jove discovered, and punished Lycaon by turning him into a wolf. One of the Argonauts. The personification of sharp-sightedness.
This musical instrument is constantly associated with the doings of the ancient deities. Amphion built the walls of Thebes by the music of his lyre. Arion charmed the dolphins in a similar way. Hercules broke the head of Linus, his music-master, with the lyre he was learning to use; and Orpheus charmed the most savage beasts, and even the Harpies and gods of the infernal regions, with the enchanting music of the stringed lyre. See Mercury. The souls of the departed. The Roman god of funerals and tombs.
A name of Venus, meaning sea-foam, from her having been formed from the froth of the sea. See Aphrodite. Mars , the god of war, was the son of Jupiter and Juno. Venus was his favorite goddess, and among their children were Cupid, Anteros, and Harmonia. The first month of the old Roman year [our March] was sacred to Mars. The name of the piper who challenged Apollo to a musical contest, and, being defeated, was flayed to death by the god.
He was the supposed inventor of the flute. One of the rural deities who protected the growing corn at time of ripening. One of the appellations of Jupiter, being the greatest of the gods. Wife of Jason, chief of the Argonauts. She was a great sorceress. See Jason. One of the Gorgons. Minerva changed her beautiful hair into serpents. Every one who looked at the head was turned into stone. Ulysses, in the Odyssey , relates that he wished to see more of the inhabitants of Hades, but was afraid, as he says —.
One of the three Furies — Greek goddesses of vengeance. One of the rural divinities, the goddess of bees. One of the nine Muses, the goddess of tragedy. An Egyptian god like Pan. He was worshiped in the form of a goat. A Spartan king, brother of Agamemnon. The elopement of his wife Helen with Paris was the cause of the siege of Troy. See Helena. The Hindoo law-giver. See Satyavrata. He was the supposed inventor of weights and measures, and presided over orators and merchants. Mercury was accounted a most cunning thief, for he stole the bow and quiver of Apollo, the girdle of Venus, the trident of Neptune, the tools of Vulcan, and the sword of Mars, and he was therefore called the god of thieves.
He is the supposed inventor of the lyre, which he exchanged with Apollo for the Caduceus. There was also an Egyptian Mercury under the name of Thoth, or Thaut, who is credited with having taught the Egyptians geometry and hieroglyphics. Hermes is the Greek name of Mercury. In art he is usually represented as having on a winged cap, and with wings on his heels. The abode of the Hindoo god Vishnu.
It is at the top of a mountain 8, leagues high. The Olympus of the East Indians. A king of Phrygia, who begged of Bacchus the special gift that everything that he touched might be turned into gold. The request was granted, and as soon as he touched his food it also was turned to gold, and for fear of being starved he was compelled to ask the god to withdraw the power he had bestowed upon him.
He was told to bathe in the river Pactolus. He did so, and the sands which he stood on were golden forever after. His statue is often seen with one hand in the rift of a tree trunk, out of which he is vainly trying to withdraw it. The fable is, that when he got to be an old man he attempted to split an oak tree, but having lost his youthful vigor, the tree closed on his hand and he was held a prisoner till the wolves came and devoured him.
She was a great benefactress of mankind, and patroness of the fine arts. She was the tutelar deity of the city of Athens. She is also known by the names of Pallas, Parthenos, Tritonia, and Glaukopis. She was very generally worshiped by the ancients, and her temple at Athens, the Parthenon, still remains. She is represented in statues and pictures as wearing a golden helmet encircled with an olive branch, and a breastplate. An owl, the emblem of meditation, is on the left; and a cock, the emblem of courage, on the right.
The supreme of the three judges of hell, before whom the spirits of the departed appeared and heard their doom. The monster, half man, half bull, which Theseus slew. A Persian divinity, the ruler of the universe, corresponding with the Roman Sol. Mother of the Muses and goddess of memory. Jupiter courted the goddess in the guise of a shepherd.
Moloch is figurative of the influence which impels us to sacrifice that which we ought to cherish most dearly. The god of mockery and blame. His bitter jests occasioned his being driven from heaven in disgrace. He is represented as holding an image of Folly in one hand, and raising a mask from his face with the other.
He is also described as the god of mirth or laughter. A name given to Juno by those writers who considered her the goddess of money. The moon was, by the ancients, called Hecate before and after setting; Astarte when in crescent form; Diana when in full. See Luna. The Greek god of sleep and dreams, the son and minister of Somnus. A name of Vulcan, sometimes spelled Mulcifer, the smelter of metals.
See Vulcan. A name given to Jupiter because he kept off the flies from the sacrifices. They presided over the arts and sciences, music and poetry. They principally resided in Mount Parnassus, at Helicon. They resided in the meadows by the sides of rivers. The mover of the waters. The Hindoo god of tides. His fruitless endeavors to possess himself of the supposed nymph drove him to despair, and he killed himself. There sprang from his blood a flower, which was named after him, Narcissus. The Scandinavian place of eternal punishment, corresponding with Hades.
Her mother was Nox. She was supposed to be constantly traveling about the earth in search of wickedness, which she punished with the greatest severity. She is referred to by some writers under the name of Adrasteia. The Romans always sacrificed to this goddess before they went to war, because they wished to signify that they never took up arms but in the cause of justice.
Grecian festivals in honor of Mnemosyne, the mother of the Muses. Neptune was married to Amphitrite, daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, by whom he had a son named Triton. He was also father of Polyphemus one of the Cyclopes , Phorcus, and Proteus.
Neptune is represented as being seated in a shell chariot, drawn by dolphins or sea-horses, and surrounded by Tritons and sea-nymphs. He holds in his hand a trident, with which he rules the waves. Though a marine deity, he was reputed to have presided over horse-training and horse-races; but he is principally known as the god of the ocean; and the two functions of the god are portrayed in the sea horses with which his chariot is drawn, the fore-half of the animal being a horse, and the hind-half a dolphin.
Ships were also under his protection, and whenever he appeared on the ocean there was a dead calm. They were daughters of Nereus and Doris, and were fifty in number. They are generally represented as beautiful girls riding on dolphins, and carrying tridents in the right hand or garlands of flowers. A sea deity, husband of Doris.
He had the gift of prophecy, and foretold fates; but he had also the power of assuming various shapes, which enabled him to escape from the importunities of those who were anxious to consult him. The name of the Centaur that was destroyed by Hercules for insulting his wife Deianira. This Intercalary Moon is marked on the calendar as an untitled thirteenth moon and might have been used as a holiday for the people; the function of the Intercalary Moon is to keep the lunar and the solar cycles in sync.
To expand the accuracy of The Sequani Calendar further, every 55 years the calendar starts a lunar cycle on one of the four major phases of the moon, returning to its original phase every years. The calendar begins the lunar cycle on the new moon in the present cycle and marks the first quarter moon as the beginning of the cycle that starts on the Winter Solstice in Moreover, The Sequani Calendar coincides with other ancient monuments such as Machu Picchu, the Pyramids, and Stonehenge which base their astronomical orientation to the Winter Solstice, a knowledge passed down from the Neolithic peoples.
The Sequani Calendar marks the Winter Solstice or Samonios as the New Year and the beginning of the light half of the year and Summer Solstice or Giamonios as the beginning of the dark half of the year. Each of these Holy Months are significant holidays designated by two facts. First, the word "Samonios" means the beginning of light and the word "Giamonios" means the beginning of darkness. Second, the holidays are accurately marked in Celtic stone monuments such as Newgrange, Knowth, Dowth, and Stonehenge to coincide with The Sequani Calendar's markings of the Solstices, the Equinoxes, and the lunar cycles.
The Sequani Calendar is therefore an integral part of Celtic culture, and perhaps like other knowledge of astronomy that was passed to the Druids from the Neolithic peoples, the calendar may represent a cornerstone of human achievement which took thousands of years to quantify. The fact that the Celtic world which spanned Europe and the British Isles shortly before the turn of the last millennium might have inherited this ancient calendar is not far fetched.
The group's astronomer and astrologer then made the exciting discovery that the beginning of each month of The Sequani Calendar was designated with the appearance of a star of first magnitude, marked PRIN on the calendar, that appears on the Eastern Horizon shortly after sunset. At sunrise, these stars are beginning to set on the Western Horizon. Time is therefore measured at night by the journey of the stars in conjunction with the orbit of the moon. The calendar also looks ahead by marking the next month's star of primary magnitude as it appears in the sky and approaches the beginning of the following month.
The group's mythologer, Helen, correlated the names of the stars and the constellations in which they appear with the goddesses and gods of Celtic mythology. Two months which were undeniably linked to myth served as her basis for exploration into the yearly cycle of Celtic myth and ritual.
Many of the other months fell into a contextual whole as research is available to correlate the eight major holidays in Celtic religion with the stars. The next piece to the puzzle fell into place when the folklore or people's holidays still celebrated in parts of the British Isles today became a vital source of information. The Oenachs, or holidays of importance still celebrated today by many cultures, are clearly marked in the full moon on the calendar and celebrated over a week's time, followed in the same month with observation of the new moon phase designated as Holy Nights or Druid nights, where the Druids worshipped and the people observed a staying- home time.
The Oenachs of The Sequani Calendar are devoted to the worship of solar deities as they follow the pattern of the sun's orbit through the year. In Britain, Stonehenge is also aligned to the Winter Solstice Oenach when the rays of the sun rise over the heel stone. This is when the Holy Nights begin. In the waning of the new moon phase, the Holy Nights are celebrated. These are fifty and forty-five days from the Oenachs and show their dates to be February 12th, May 12th , and October 12th.
The Holy Nights form a rectangle outside the circle of Oenachs. Again, certain Neolithic monuments have sacred paths marking the entrance to the circle on a particular Holy Night. These nights are often extended over a seven night period marked on the calendar as such. The calendar also marks these important nights to carry in two observances each devoted to an aspect of the Holy Night. The group was well on its way to decoding the other markings on The Sequani Calendar as they realized that the lunar cycles, the solar cycles, and the Holy Nights are all decorated by the constellations in a varied and highly accurate picture of celestial meanderings charted meticulously on the calendar.
Likewise, in the Summer Constellations, the Summer Triangle formed by the stars of primary magnitude of the two months leading up to the Summer Solstice in the month of Giamonios, are highly visible for the Holy Night of Midsummer. On the calendar, TIO stars in patterns of three six and nine most probably forming triangles, sacred patterns of three, are also clearly marked.
The relevance of The Sequani Calendar became more and more evident as the artists began to visualize the natural symbols that would represent each lunar cycle. The mythology easily matched occurrences in the agricultural cycles, the natural cycles of plants and animals, and in the familiar spiritual cycles and holidays of European cultures. For instance, the agricultural cycles of Lugnasad and the Harvest Festivals on The Sequani Calendar coincide with the harvest festivals already celebrated in many parts of the British Isles and the Continent.
The Sacred Snake days of Rivros coincide with St. Patrick's day and the harvesting of the mistletoe coincides with mid-summer Holy Nights. Most importantly, the holidays of Anagantios and Ogronios coincide with the sacrifice and resurrection of the Christian Easter.
This ancient text is a familiar pattern re-visited. Its accuracy is astounding and its wealth of detail far outweighs our present calendars. It elevates our understanding of time into what the Druids expressed in their script on the ancient monuments in spirals and triskeles, shapes that reflect the eternal patterns of Nature. It lifts us out of the flat two-dimensional perception of time as arbitrary markings on a rectangular surface to a three- dimensional vision of time which spirals to infinity.
With this comes a deeper spiritual vision of our relation to the natural world. It is our opportunity to reach for the stars and use what is within and without. The calendars of ancient cultures are one such correlative because they measure time by a constant: the patterns of the moon, the stars and the sun.
When the myths of the culture are set to these patterns, they are able to tell a story of the myth of the year as it follows the celestial bodies. In conjunction with the celestial bodies and the myths is the pattern of the earth and the agricultural cycle familiar to ancient peoples. By combining all three, we are able to understand mythology as the ancients understood it, as a means of charting the world around them.
Both have ancient monuments that chart the celestial bodies as far back as the Neolithic Era retaining many of the rituals and practices of these cultures through symbolic language and artifacts at the sites of their monuments. Both are able to speak the language of the stones when we are able to read them. The Indo-European migrations effected both cultures in terms of their mythologies and in the creation of their languages.
With a firm basis in the Indo-European language, both cultures have accessible root meanings to concepts and words. There was also an active exchange between the ancient Celts and the Greeks. Many Druids wrote and spoke Greek, and many Greeks traded and recorded the history and sociology of the Celts. Most importantly, the calendar of the Celts, or The Sequani Calendar, and the calendar of the Greeks, or the Sacred Calendar of Eleusis, are strikingly similar. The calendars mark lunar and solar time with both cycles in conjunction using an intercalary month to coordinate the cycles of the sun and the moon.
The calendars are then successfully able to use lunar cycles for the twelve months of the year. The equinoxes and the solstices are included in the lunar month and the stars are indicated in the calendars as well.
In the lunar month, both calendars celebrate their people's holidays on the full moon or Oenachs and the priest's Holy Nights on the new moon. The third quarter moon is a significant time in both calendars to begin religious practices. The lunar months are also a microcosm of larger lunar cycles that both calendars follow. Every 55 years the lunar cycle begins on one of the four major phases of the moon.
For example, since the middle of the Twentieth Century, the lunar cycle began on a new moon, and in the year , it will begin on the next significant phase of the moon: the first quarter. Many of the Neolithic monuments such Stonehenge with its Aubrey Holes and Knowth with its lunar calendar stone mark these cycles for us. Both calendars have 55 night cycles that act as a microcosm to that macrocosmic 55 year cycle. In this way, people are able to experience the time in their year and the time of humanity in the lunar cycles.
The Sequani Calendar and the Sacred Calendar of Eleusis have a 55 night cycle for one of their most important celebrations: the coming of the fall equinox. Both calendars follow the ellipsis of the sun's orbit and its quickening pace at the equinoxes. Hence, the ancients marked it as a celebration of central importance.
On The Sequani Calendar and the Sacred Calendar of Eleusis, the fall equinox is marked as three part celebration of the coming of winter and the acceptance of death. The first phase of the 55 night celebration is the Sacred Marriage of the people to the land.
The king, as representative of the tribe, marries the goddess of the earth and reaps her harvest. This takes place in the dark half of the lunar cycle of the month of Equos on The Sequani Calendar and in dark half of the lunar cycle of Metageitnion on the Sacred Calendar of Eleusis. The constellations of Pegasus, Equuleus, and Capella mark the celebration and the horse goddesses, such as Epona and Macha in Celtic mythology and Demeter Erinys in Greek mythology represent the celebration.
The second phase of the 55 night celebration, the entire lunar month of Elembivios on The Sequani Calendar and the month of Boedromion on the Sacred Calendar of Eleusis, is set aside as a time to accept the oncoming winter and the end of the harvest as well as the end of one's own life. The seeds of the harvest are a symbol of the potential each person has to accept the inevitability of his or her death. They serve as an agricultural metaphor to the human experience.
The Greek goddess, Demeter, and the Celtic goddesses of the Matrona are the representations of this celebration. The last phase of the 55 night celebration is the lunar cycle of Edrinios on The Sequani Calendar and the lunar cycle of Pyanopsion on the Sacred Calendar of Eleusis.
This celebration is to ensure that the seeds of our labor are safely stored for the winter. It is marked by the Hyades, the constellation of the celebration of the Thesmophoria of Pyanopsion where the priestesses of Demeter store the seeds and bless the fields. The Hyades are a cluster of stars that represent Persephone, the daughter of Demeter. As the full moon passes between the Hyades, the festival is completed. The understanding of these calendars is the beginning of understanding the myth of the year and the myths of the Celtic and Greek cultures.
It is also our pathway to understanding the natural cycles of time and the cycles of the earth in a context of our own experience. In the pages that follow, let the heavens be your guide to this one piece in the larger puzzle of gaining back our time as it is measured by the sun, the moon, and the stars.
In the first half of the lunar cycle, the Goddess as horse is seen in her most powerful equine form. She represents controlled strength, independence, and love of spirit. Like the grain, her power is reined in, controlled and harvested. The seventeen nights of the First Harvest are celebrated and abundant grain is prayed for. As a grain goddess, she is a figure of fertility, wealth and sovereignty. Her horse aspect , an Indo-European addition, secures and increases her power.
Fomalhaut in Pisces Austrini, known as the Southern Fish, is her guiding star. The second half, or the dark phase, of the lunar cycle beginning on the third quarter or waning moon, marks the Holy Nights of Equos. The dawn of the last three nights of the dark moon of Equos is especially noted as the beginning of the ceremonies on The Sequani Calendar.
This would be the dawn of the 11th , 12th, and 13th nights of the dark phase of the moon. Praesepe, the star cluster in the constellation of Cancer commonly known as the manger, and the two horses, Pegasus and Equuleus, decorate the sky. Similarly, the dark half of the moon in the month of Metageitnion in the Sacred Calendar of Eleusis is marked as the first phase of the mysteries of Demeter, the grain goddess of Greek mythology. The king, as representative of the people, sanctifies this important time.
The union is the Sacred Marriage of the king to the land as equine power and agricultural wealth. The agricultural significance of the grain that is harnessed and stored is enhanced by the sexual coupling of grain mother with a male companion. In Celtic mythology there are several references to the king coupling with a white mare to impart her blessings on society. Geraldus Cambrensis in his "Description of Ireland," relates the ritual in Ulster where the people are gathered together to witness the king-elect act out a union with the mare who is then sacrificed and cooked.
He becomes the new king by bathing in the broth, eating the flesh, and drinking the broth. The king and the tribe are deemed potent and virile because they have invoked the equine divinity. The lexical support for this ceremony is evidenced in the name Epomeduos, or Epona, the Gaulish name for the compound of "horse" and the intoxicating broth, "medhu," or mead Mallory and Adams A Celtic artist depicts Epona in a small bronze figurine with ears of corn in her lap and a dish of corn in her right hand which is held high above her steed as a symbol of power and wealth.
Ross Macha greatly increases the wealth of Crunnchu and becomes pregnant with his children. However, she is compelled to take on a race with King Conchobor's horse at the end of her term of pregnancy due to the boasting of her husband. Even though she wins the race in the form of a horse, she gives birth to twins and curses all the men present for making her race. Before she dies in childbirth, she curses the men of Ulster with birth "pangs" which incapacitate them in battle for nine generations.
Perhaps the myth is a warning to the king-elect to be judicious with his newly found power and wealth to avoid evoking the anger of the Divine Horse. Other figures in Celtic mythology bring the sovereignty of the land to the people through their Sacred Marriages. Medb of Connacht takes several husbands, each of whom becomes king when marrying her. Medb's name itself means a strong and intoxicating broth or mead. Like Macha, she is so swift that no other horse can overtake her. This is the beginning of the 55 night celebration of the Eleusinian Mysteries of Demeter and Persephone.
Demeter, is the goddess of the earth's fruits. She is called "the green one," "the bringer of fruit," and the "the one who fills the barn. Equos and Metageitnion are lunar cycles of the harvest, and the celebrations in both cultures mark this time by the first event of the changing of seasons: the Sacred Marriage of grain mother to the king. In Greek mythology the King, Poseidon marries Demeter as horse goddess and her daughter, Persephone is married to Pluton, the Underworld god of wealth.
Because the two goddess act a mirror figures of each other, both are abducted by gods associated with horses, darkness, death and winter. The Goddesses, as Spring and Summer, must marry Fall and Winter to complete the agricultural cycle of the seasons. Demeter is told of the abduction of Persephone by Pluton, and she begins searching for her daughter. The dawn of the lunar cycle brings a breakthrough for Demeter and is marked on both calendars. At this time, Poseidon pursues Demeter to Arcadia where Demeter changes into a mare and grazes with the horses of Oncus at Oncieum near Thelpusa.
Not at all discouraged, Poseidon changes himself into a stallion and mates with her. She retreats to a cave and gives birth to twins: Areion, a horse, and Despoena, a girl. The Horse Goddess in both cultures is a symbol of fertility and maternity witnessed by the fact that she bears Divine Twins from the Sacred Marriage.
Demeter and Macha both give birth to a horse and a child. Macha's twins are called Emain Macha, the prehistoric burial mound in Ireland, and Demeter's twins are Areion and Despoena. Despoena was worshipped as a goddess in Arcadia around Phigala. The Divine Horse Goddess is an expression of "female procreativity and the cyclical rebirth and death of both plants and mankind.
She was the Great Mother and the entire world was her Child. Her male consort was a vegetative spirit, both her son who grew from the earth and her mate who would abduct her to the fecunding other realm as he possessed her upon his death" Ruck Elembivios, the lunar cycle that follows Equos and the Sacred Marriage of the Horse Goddess, is lunar cycle devoted to accepting the oncoming of winter where the nights grow significantly longer and the days shorter.
It is the last quarter of the year containing the Autumnal Equinox and is generally thought to be an inauspicious time or time to "claim" and settle affairs before the darkness sets in. In the agricultural cycle, it is time to store the grain from the harvest and pray against catastrophes. Spiritually, it is time to realize that the seeds of our labors if kept in good faith, will be the basis of our spiritual strength.
To guide us through Elembivios, we need protection, vision, spiritual strength, and stored wealth. Elembivios begins as the elliptic has moved from South to North. The star of primary magnitude, or guiding star of the month, Capella in the constellation of Auriga, appears on the Eastern Horizon with the Hyades. Mars is a frequent companion to Mercury either in conjunction or in opposition on the horizon at twilight or dawn.
This often happens in the last days of the lunar cycle right after the new moon. Sometimes Mars is straight up in the sky. This spectacular portrait in the sky concludes with the crossing of the river in the sky, Eridanus, which changes from a morning constellation to an evening constellation at this time.
This celebration of the tribes is one of the most important celebrations as the stars indicate. Auriga, the constellation called "the Keeper of Livestock," is the charioteer from the Otherworld of death and winter.
He guides us to spiritual realization of the strength of our own accomplishments by showing us that the seeds of our labors are safe in his chariot for the winter. In Celtic mythology, Auriga is the charioteer and path-maker for Cernunnos. Mercury is his high priest aspect, and Mars is his warrior aspect.
In Greek mythology, Auriga is Hermes. The Autumnal Equinox complements Auriga as an assessor of the seeds of the harvest in a public Oenach or "Claim Time" on the full moon. When we have balanced our material and spiritual accounts, we cross the River, Eridanus. The crossing of the River in Celtic and Greek mythology, is the symbolic journey of the acceptance of life-in-death.
It is a celebration that has its roots in Neolithic times. The Pregnant Vegetation Goddess of Neolithic sites is part of a mystery where her daughter, the seed, dies each year and is resurrected in the spring. The daughter dies annually and the grain mother mourns her death. In this way, the annual cycle of regeneration and germination would be enacted on a yearly basis before the oncoming winter.
A sacrificed pig was used as the symbol of the goddess' daughter to reinforce her connection with the earth and the quickly ripening grain. Three grain types, wheat, barley and millet were often stuffed inside clay figurines of the goddess near her altars Gimbutas The male consort of the daughter is the underground keeper of wealth and a spiritual priest, the transgressor of souls.
He is portrayed as a harvest aspect of the Vegetation Year God with "a crook across his shoulder or attached to his belt. In the stars of Elembivios, he is Auriga, The Charioteer, holding a goat and three kids on his left shoulder and a bridle and whip in his right hand. The name of the month of these rituals on Crete and Thera is "Eleusinios" Nilsson The rituals were performed in rooms that contained cult objects with traces of grain and animal offerings.
The main symbol in the artwork of these rooms is the horns or the consecrated bucrania which suggest rites of renewal and rites of passage where the initiate would be re- vitalized by a ceremony of death and resurrection. Marija Gimbutas states: "I believe that rituals that occurred in the dark crypts of the Knossos temple complex relate, on the one hand, to those performed one or two thousand years earlier in the large tomb shrines of Old Europe: Newgrange and Knowth in Ireland, and the Hal Saflieni in Malta.
On the other hand, they mirrored those ceremonies enacted in classical times, such as the mysteries of Eleusis, accompanied by music and dance, symbolically imitated death and resurrection" The rituals that Gimbutas speaks of are marked on the ancient calendars of the Greeks and the Celts. On The Sequani Calendar, the dark half of the month, or the last half of the lunar cycle is marked for the Holy Nights of Elembivios. The first nine nights of the cycle are marked as time to cross the River, Eridanus, in a spiritual quest.
The sixth and seventh nights of those days are specifically marked with crosses. On the Sacred Calendar of Eleusis, the same nine nights, mentioned earlier in the Hymn to Demeter, the Holy Nights of the Eleusinian Mysteries, are preceded by a claim time or taking of the tithes for Eleusis.
Official delegations proclaiming a holy truce for the first harvest were sent in the name of the grain goddess Mylonas Again, the sixth and seventh nights of the dark half of the lunar month of Boedromion are the nights in the Telesterion where the Hiera is shown to the people and the life- in-death vision is complete. The last nights of the dark moon on both calendars are marked for rest, libations, and rites for the dead.
The Winter Constellations appear in the night sky on the tenth day of the dark half of the lunar cycle and winter begins. On The Sequani Calendar, these nights are marked by the mysteries of Mars and Mercury; they are marked with three crosses. On the Sacred Calendar of Eleusis, the rites for the dead are called the Plemochoai. The mystic formula quite possibly ensures that the stored grain contained in the earth will be fertilized in order that it may resurrect in spring.
The east-west directions and the pitcher correspond to the Neolithic details of the myth mentioned above. The Neolithic rituals and the portrait of the stars in Elembivios are also paralleled in Celtic and Greek mythology. The Matrona are often depicted as three women seated on a stone bench holding cornucopias, fruits, bread, or an infant.
The mother figures, as well as other Celtic goddesses, are part of a sacred triskele which represent the daughter, the mother and the crone, three phases of the feminine archetype. Single mother goddesses or goddesses with children playing about their feet are variations of the sacred mother found in abundance in Britain and Gaul.
In these stories, it is evident that the matriarchy is an important element in the Iron Age myths. The Celts inherited a particularly strong Indo-European tradition of portraying the pig and the boar in their Iron Age mythology as a harbinger of death, decay and burial. The boar was adopted as a clan symbol because of its ferocity to protect its own.
It is associated with heroes and mortality and the battle against death as well as being associated with the vegetation goddesses and the cycle of crops. Instead of a daughter figure that must be revealed to the mother as a sign of the continuity of the vegetation cycle, the hero must hunt and kill the pig or boar as a posture of defense against mortality and death or hunt the animal to the Otherworld and return in triumph.
In the Irish tales of Magh Mucrime , the pig has underworld connections ravaging the land for seven years creating a winter of desolation, and in the Fenian cycle of Irish mythology, Finn and his men are often in pursuit of an Otherworldly pig or boar. Coll's pig gives birth to wheat and barley in the journey thus associating him with the grain mother.
As the harvest aspect of the Vegetation Year God in Neolithic culture, he is first seen associated with the bucrania as the master of horned animals and as a protector of the goddesses. However, in Indo-European culture, he is given a more dominant role than that of consort. In Indo-European culture, he is named as high priest. The figure of the priest as "one who evoked the deities of the underworld to assist in protecting the fertility of the crops and similar agricultural pursuits" is one of three defined roles of the priesthood.
His name "Pont-dheh-ker" means a high priest who makes a path or bridge to the gods Mallory and Adams Like Mercury and Auriga, he brings the vision of immortality, renewal and resurrection to the peoples of the earth. In his horned, animal aspect, he controls the animals.
Beasts bow their heads in obeisance to his horned, black image and humans look to him for guidance in controlling their amassed wealth and stored grains for the winter. Portrayed on the Gundestrup Cauldron in a Buddhic sitting position, antlered and solemn, Cernunnos in his warrior aspect, is able to conquer the darkness in the form of a serpent, a symbol of the chthonic regions of the Otherworld.
In one hand, Cernunnos firmly grasps the ram-headed serpent and in the other, he holds a torc, symbol of immortality: Twrch Trwyth. Men who are not able, like Cernunnos, to control their wealth are at the mercy of the serpent. This is most likely an Indo-European tradition of conquering the serpent as the goddess of the year. Cernunnos, divine ancestor, conquering god of the chthonic worlds, balances, like the balanced light of the Equinox, the power between this world and the Otherworld.
According to Ross, many of the British stone figures are significantly different from their Gaulish counterparts because they are markedly phallic. Ross states that there are four basic ways he is depicted in Britain. He is seen as a naked phallic deity, as a warrior, as Mercury, and as a horned head According to Ross, the tale is "of a very early and genuine Celtic tradition" In the tale, Conall Cernach, like Cernunnos, is an ancestor deity of the Irish.
Conall sets out to rescue the Fraech's wife, sons and cattle who have been carried off by a fierce and terrible tribe. Conall meets a crone who tells him to speak to a herdswoman because she cannot help them. The herdswoman, a diviner, tells Conall that she has heard that he is the chosen one who will save Fraech's family and kill the awful serpent that guards them.
Conall attacks the fort of the serpent and the serpent slides into his belt without a struggle. The relationship between the great horned-god of the Celts and the serpent symbolizes the control Cernunnos has of the underworld powers. He is the path-maker and protector for the people. In Greek mythology, the figure of the path-maker is Hermes or Mercury.
Although he is a less ominous figure than Cernunnos, Hermes serves a similar purpose as messenger and path-maker between the forces of the Underworld, Hades, and the Earth, Demeter. Most importantly, he carries the vision of immortality that Demeter is shown in order that she may know that her daughter will be kept safely through the winter months and returned in spring. Likewise, the people of the earth are secure because their seeds will be safely stored for the winter to be used again in the spring.
Hermes is a pre-Olympian god associated with the phallus and the snake. He is said to have stimulated plant growth, and he is the keeper of the flocks. Hermes carries a kerykeion or magic staff that has snakes twisted around it. With his kerykeion, he is able to summon souls from the Underworld. In the mysteries of Eleusis, the kykeon is a drink offered to the initiates before they witness the Hiera or vision of Persephone brought to them in Herme's chariot.
As high priest of the Eleusinian mysteries, his function is to transform and alleviate the people of their fear of winter and death. The myth of Demeter and Persephone is one of the central myths in Greek mythology that has definite roots in Neolithic culture. Demeter is the aspect of the Pregnant Vegetation Goddess that is associated with the fruits of the earth, the grain and the harvest, and her daughter is the grain maiden and queen of the dead.
Demeter's sacred animal, the sow, has Neolithic roots and her daughter's association with sprouts, seeds, and the piglet is also Neolithic. According to Gimbutas, the Neolithic myth of Demeter and Persephone involves the daughter of the grain mother descending to the Underworld to hibernate and live in the Underworld as Queen.
Persephone's "torch light quickens the grain: the seed does not die, but continues to live in the underworld" She is portrayed as a queen enthroned, holding a dove, a pomegranate, a torch, and ears of corn. In the mythology of the Indo-Europeans and the Bronze and Iron Age peoples, the Underworld becomes a place of gloom and the seed or maiden is extinguished instead of hibernating. The mother and daughter are both abducted by gods and mourn their separation.
Demeter as Demeter Erinys, the angry one, is abducted by Poseidon, and Persephone is abducted by Hades. Demeter must wander the earth in search of her daughter, and the earth experiences winter because of her grief. The Sacred Marriage is in the first 15 nights of a 55 night cycle marked on the Sacred Calendar of Eleusis.
The search and discovery of Persephone is the next 30 nights of the 55 night cycle covering the light and dark halves of the tenth lunar cycles on both calendars. The entire lunar cycle, entitled Elembivios or Boedromion, is dedicated to the search for and discovery of the seed as it sleeps in the earth. In a spiritual sense, we are searching for life-in-death. The final 10 nights of the 55 night cycle is the light half of the month of Edrinios on The Sequani Calendar and the light half of Pyanopsion on the Sacred Calendar of Eleusis.
This last part of the 55 night cycle is to cross into death or winter to the Otherworld or Underworld. Both calendars seem to keep 5 year cycles in order that the solar and lunar cycles are in sync. The Sequani Calendar starts every 55 years on one of the four major phases of the moon for the same reason. The Aubrey Holes at Stonehenge and the lunar calendar stone at Knowth mark those 55 year lunar cycles.
Obviously, these cycles are marked to keep accurate time with the sun, moon and the stars. The creation of the 55 nights on the Sacred Calendar of Eleusis might then be seen as a microcosm for these larger cycles of time. In this way, the ancients celebrated the season of one year and the season of life simultaneously. The metaphors expand and the meaning enhances as the natural events, both cosmic and definite, are connected. For this reason, the entire month of Boedromion is devoted to the rituals of Demeter and Persephone, the symbols of "spring-summer and fall- winter in a cycle of constant renewal" Gimbutas The rituals begin on the first four nights of the dark half of the lunar cycle when the initiates walk fourteen miles from Athens to Eleusis to cross the bridge over the river to the temple of Demeter where they wait at the sacred well or kallichoron outside the temple.
Dancing and the sacrifice of a piglet are part of the ceremonies as well as the ritual cleansing of the body and the soul in fasting and prayer. In the mythology, Demeter must wander the earth and then come to the omphalos or entrance to the Underworld to mourn.
Demeter assumes the guise of a crone and Hecate, the actual goddess who is the crone, attends her. Hermes, the transgressor of souls, then enters the Underworld to retrieve Persephone and bring her to Demeter. On the Sacred Calendar of Eleusis this day, the fifth day of the dark half of Boedromion is called "Pompe.
They cross the bridge between this world and the Otherworld and the veil is lifted. In The Sequani Calendar and the mythology of the Celts, this is marked as crossing the River on the sixth and seventh nights of the dark half of Elembivios.
On the Sacred Calendar of Eleusis, the initiates enter the temple to experience the Hiera on the same nights of Boedromion. A yellow ribbon is tied on the leg and hand of each initiate to symbolize his or her illumination or vision and each drinks the kykeon. The tying of one leg and one hand is reminiscent of the powerful stance of the Druids where they raise one hand and one foot and close one eye to summon the powers of the Otherworld.
Having experienced what Carl Kerenyi calls a "vision beatifica," the people understand the powers of life and death. Unfortunately, Persephone has tasted of the pomegranate, or the fruits of the dead and must return to the Underworld to remain underground for the winter. The Sacred Calendar of Eleusis marks them as the Plemochoai or rites for the dead.
In the "Hymn to Demeter," Hecate becomes the minister and companion of Persephone, and Rhea, the goddess of the earth, becomes the companion to Demeter and asks Demeter to join the families of the gods. On earth, the people are given a sacred calendar in order that they may eternally celebrate the mysteries of life and death in accordance with the stars, the moon, the sun and the cycles of the earth's fruits.
The lunar cycle of Edrinios, the last lunar cycle of the celebration of the 55 night cycle, is named for the constellation of Eridanus which appears on the Eastern Horizon at the beginning of the month. Eridanus, the River, is our spiritual guide through the celebration of this lunar cycle. Here, the moon is celebrated in two distinct phases. The first phase is celebrated in the powerful light of the nights of the full moon itself.
On the tenth night of the month, when the full moon passes the Hyades, known as the piglets, the second phase of the celebration begins and lasts until the moon is waning in its third quarter. These are the contemplative and sacred nights of the celebration performed by the priestesses of Persephone who are represented by the constellation of the Hyades. The 55 night cycle begins with the Sacred Marriage of the people to the land as a symbol of our commitment to the harvest; it takes place in the dark half of the lunar cycle of Equos.
The second part of the 55 night cycle is the entire month of Elembivios and it is devoted to embracing the oncoming winter through a spiritual awakening to life-in-death and a realization of our human potential. The culmination of that cycle reaches its peak in the Holy Nights of Elembivios where we are given spiritual peace to face death and make it through the oncoming months of winter.
The last phase of the 55 night cycle is to ensure that the seeds of our labor are safely stored for the winter; this essential month is Edrinios. The three days around the full moon are the time of the first phase of the Oenach. The second phase of the Oenach is marked on The Sequani Calendar with three crosses before the moon begins its third quarter; this is when the full moon passes the Hyades.
On the Sacred Calendar of Eleusis, the celebration is in the month of Pyanopsion, the eleventh lunar cycle of the Greek calendar. The first phase of celebration is called the Proerosia and the Pyanopsia of the Thesmophoria. Both celebrations have their roots in the Neolithic culture of Europe and the Mediterranean. They were the times for the storage and the blessing of the seeds, a sacred activity carried out by the women of the tribes.
The Hyades are an apt representation of these festivals as they are the piglets of Persephone, most likely represented by her priestesses. In the night sky, they appear as a cluster or group and their rising signifies the beginning of winter. They are often immersed in a cloud of streamers, as if protected by a veil. They are protected as the seeds of our labors must be protected.
Before they had a name in the myths and legends of the Celts and the Greeks, they appeared as a sign in the sky that it was time for the winter seeds to be carefully protected and stored. Marija Gimbutas describes three types Neolithic temples, one of which she calls the temples dedicated to the Pregnant Vegetation Goddess.
In the temples were found masks of pigs, clay figurines of young, mature and crone women, and figurines with grain stuffed inside. The temples housed seeds in underground pits, in offering pits in the corners of the temple courtyard, or in "pithoi" jars. According to Gimbutas, the care and maintenance of the Neolithic temples was organized by councils of women with several levels including that of priestess and attendants Gimbutas The storage of the sacred grain inherited from the Neolithic peoples continued in the agrarian festivals of the Greek Thesmophoria.
In the preparation festivals on the full moon of Pyanopsion, called the Proerosia and the Pyanopsia, mixed grains and beans in earthen jars were dedicated to the goddesses and to Apollo Pythios, a representative of the snake. The ceremonies were known as "sacrifices for the future crops before the annual plowing and its almost certain connection with the ritual pre-ploughing of the sacred Rharian field at Eleusis" Dow and Healey The priestesses for the ceremony were chosen from a special group of "chaste" women who lived in a sacred dwelling close to the sanctuary of Eleusis; they might have been both the representations of the Hyades, sisters of the heavenly tribe, and representatives of the Neolithic matriarchy on earth.
In the second phase of the celebration, on the three days that precede the third quarter moon, the actual Thesmophoria took place. Here, the remains of piglets sacrificed to Demeter and Persephone in the lunar month of Boedromion, were removed from underground pits and placed on the altars in order to be mixed with seeds. The seeds, like Persephone, were kept in this sacred place to ensure a fertile crop in the spring.
The priestess of Plouton, representative of the forces of the Underworld, conducted the ceremonies and the women mentioned above assisted her; unlike other Greek ceremonies, this was a festival of women Dow and Healey In the "Hymn to Demeter," the ideology of the Thesmophoria is apparent. When Demeter discovers that her daughter has been abducted by the Lord of the Underworld, she wanders the earth disguised in the form of an old woman.
She comes to the house of Metaneira in Eleusis and sits by "the Maiden Well" to grieve. Demeter, as crone, is approached by the daughters of Metaneira, maidens of the rarest beauty. Demeter is comforted by the maidens and is housed by their mother for a time. But when her stay is fruitless and the mortals can not help her in her quest, she reveals herself as the goddess and curses them with winter retreating to her temple until Hermes comes to her with Persephone. Soon, Demeter forgives the mortals and teaches the families of Eleusis the mysteries of her rituals.
Demeter in the form of a crone plays a vital role in the mysteries. Again, their parallels in the sky are the Hyades. In a festival devoted to women on all levels, immortal, mortal and heavenly, the women are allowed to retain their Neolithic rights of the care and preservation of the grain. At the end of the myth, Demeter shares the mysteries of the grain with the families of Eleusis and the inherited Neolithic matriarchy is reinforced.
Despite the fact that we do not have the details of the Celtic rituals, the days on The Sequani Calendar are clearly marked as Tiocobrextio and three crosses signify the days when the full moon passes the Hyades in the month of Edrinios. Furthermore, the Hyades are marked as the guides for the lunar cycle. The concepts of the grain mother as crone and the giving of the gifts to the tribes is most evident in Celtic mythology as is the establishment of the goddess as sovereign of the land.
The most ancient of mothers, the caillech, is the Celtic expression of the crone. She is found in numerous cites in Britain and the Continent. She originally appears as a tripartite goddess with the Caillech Bolus and the Caillech Corca Duibhne. The caillech who presides in many local Celtic tribal icons, is often portrayed as the keeper of the woodlands and associated with sacred wells or river boundaries as a territorial goddess.
According to Anne Ross, the caillechs, like the topographical goddesses such as Macha and Grian, became guardians of the wells or hill where they once propitiated The ancient goddesses of Celtic and Greek mythology retain the power of the mother goddess in her three roles as maiden, mother and crone. They are inherent in the belief systems of the ancient peoples because their stories are part of an agricultural cycle that is connected to the sun, the moon and the stars.
In the lunar cycle of Edrinios, we have seen the last part of the agricultural myth re-lived in the heavens and on earth. The 55 night cycle is an event that marks the changing of the seasons. As a microcosm for the 55 year lunar cycle, it allows us to participate in a miracle of cosmic change. In this way, the cycle of the Fall Equinox becomes relevant on many planes of existence.
Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, Gimbutas, Marija. The Living Goddesses. Edited and Supplemented by Miriam Robbins Dexter. Kerenyi, Carl. Eleusis: Archetypal Image of Mother and Daughter. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Mallory, J. Mallory and D. Adams, Eds. London: Fitzroy Dearborn, Mylonas, George E. Eleusis and the Eleusinian Mysteries. Nilsson, Martin P. New York: Biblo and Tannen, Richardson, J. Homeric Hymn to Demeter. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Ross, Anne.
Pagan Celtic Britain. Chicago: Academy Chicago Publishers, The Road to Eleusis. Los Angeles: Hermes Press, These constellations are Cassiopeia, Andromeda, Perseus, and Cepheus. The myths of these constellations were written from the accounts of Herodotus, an historian of the fifth century BCE, where he establishes the lineage of Perseus. Cassiopeia is one of several constellations that are viewed continually as they circumnavigate Polaris, the North Star.
Cassiopeia was said to have been "condemned by the gods to swing forever around the North Celestial Pole because of her offensive boasting" Staal At Elembivios and Boedromion, Cassiopeia is inverted and her stars form a "W," a symbolic posture to punish her for bragging. In both the "Hymn to Demeter" and story of Cassiopeia, the mother must suffer. The mother is punished for her beauty and the beauty of her daughter when the deities recognize her.
In the "Hymn to Demeter," Hades abducts Persephone, and Demeter much search the earth in vain for her daughter. In the myth of Cassiopeia, Poseidon is angered by the boast that Cassiopeia's daughter, Andromeda, is more beautiful than the Nereids, his nymphs, and Cassiopeia must sacrifice her daughter to the sea monster, Cetus. Demeter's daughter is abducted by Hades with the permission of Zeus, almost as if it is part of a divine plan to find a wife for the Lord of the Underworld and exercise the sexual rites of the daughter.
Although these stories are descendents from earlier Bronze or Iron Age myths of the loss of the seed, or daughter, to winter, both myths retain the suffering and loss of the mother for her daughter as a reminder of the seasonal changes. The interest of the Underworld deity, Hades, leaves another basic element of the earlier myths intact: the necessity of the contact with winter and symbolic death represented as the Underworld.
Loss and death dominate the myths with the arrival of the constellations of the Fall Equinox. The major difference is that the later myth assumes that the woman as queen, not goddess, is responsible for the suffering and is due punishment.
The daughter also seems to experience a rectitude of necessary quiet and suffering in the myths. In the myth of Persephone and Demeter, Persephone is presented as a sufferer who has taken her throne beside the god of the Underworld. In the "Hymn to Demeter," she is temporarily returned to Demeter as a vision of life-in-death. In the later Iron Age myth of Cassiopeia, Andromeda is chained to a rock awaiting Cetus, a monster Poseidon created from his anger.
In the sky, she is a long line of bright stars with fainter stars "that represent the outstretched arms of Andromeda while she is chained to the rock" Staal 9. Despite the common denominator of her suffering, the figure of the daughter in the myth of Cassiopeia and Andromeda is diminished from its original position in the earlier myth of Demeter and Persephone.
In the "Hymn to Demeter," Persephone as Queen of the Underworld is transported by the Charioteer, Hermes, to her mother where they embrace in a touching scene of reunion. Demeter tells Persephone that Persephone must stay with her husband because she has eaten a pomegranate seed he gave her.
She has a knowledge of daughter's her fate that has been planned by the gods and forces of creation, and she knows that Persephone has been given the title of Queen as compensation. Persephone and Demeter accept Persephone's fate, as we accept the oncoming winter months, and Persephone returns to be seated comfortably in the Underworld as goddess and queen. As she is to be sacrificed to the monster Cetus, she shrieks in agony for her parents, Cassiopeia and Cepheus, to save her from a violent death.
Her position in the culture has diminished from a major goddess of the seasons of fall and winter, to a sacrificial virgin of the gods. Moreover, her political status has been diminished because she is the daughter of a foreigner, the King of Joppa in Ethiopia. In Ovid's translation of the myth much is made of Andromeda's suffering as a victim of circumstances, and in Apollodorus' version, Andromeda is seen as "prey" to the monster. Although the representatives of Great Goddesses of the Grain Harvest, Demeter and Persephone, reenact their yearly cycle of separation and temporary loss for the benefit and knowledge of the time-keepers of the agricultural year, the ideology that remains in the mythology is obviously the suffering that the mother and daughter must face during their separation.
In later versions of the same myth, the two women, Cassiopeia and Andromeda, must re-live the separation of mother and daughter. Where the earlier Bronze and Iron Age story must explain both mysteries, the life and growth of woman as earth and mother, the later Iron Age focuses on the human drama and its intensity.
The most significant addition to the myths and the constellations of the Fall Equinox is the appearance of the hero, Perseus. In the night sky, the constellation of Perseus "towers protectively over Andromeda" with one foot almost stepping on the star cluster of the Hyades Staal 9. It seems as if the Hyades, who have been recognized in the rituals of the Thesmophoria in the first half of the month of Pyanopsia, are now dominated in this story in the sky.
In his hand, is the head of Medusa, which includes Algol, a star that changes its brightness every three days as if its powers still resonate the awful power of the Medusa. Again, this magnificent appearance of Perseus addresses the fact that the full moon has passed the Hyades and the hero must cross the river Eridanus to begin his journey.
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Suggest as cover photo Would you like to suggest this photo as the cover photo for this article? Yes, this would make a good choice No, never mind. Thank you for helping! Thanks for reporting this video! This article was just edited, click to reload. This article has been deleted on Wikipedia Why? God powers can now be properly cast on flying units at the edge of the map. Blessed Construction: Fixed an issue where the power would only work on a single building when multiple were selected.
Geysers: Can now be spawned beneath mobile units. Fixed certain exploits related to the Hesperides Tree and Dryad units. Inferno: When choosing targets, units will no longer be selected after reaching the unit damage cap. This allows it to continue damaging buildings when the unit damage cap has been reached but the building damage cap has not. Inferno: Reworked to now respect damage limits. Sea Snakes no longer show up as idle military. The Spiders god power can no longer be used to activate campaign triggers or the Sudden Death countdown.
War Salamanders no longer path off the map to bypass obstacles or cross cliffs. Implemented a potential fix for units pathing into objects such as gold mines. Fixed an issue where hotkey customizations would not save properly, causing both the custom and default configurations to be active at the same time. Fixed an issue where melee units would ignore their queued attacks on buildings if under attack.
Fixed an issue where Levy, Conscripts, and other technologies that increase training speed could remove a unit from the build queue. Unfinished Isis monuments no longer block god powers when something in the world is converted. Fixed the Auto Queue only activating on a single building when multiple were selected.
Fixed various issues where players could be kicked from their game for not owning DLC-specific units. AI-controlled players will now properly unload units as a group rather than one at a time. Locust Swarm. Fixed the rendering of environment cube maps i. Fixed an issue where particles would display the wrong colors, and meshes would use additive blending i.
Rainbows, Phoenix, and Phoenix Eggs. Fixed Skybox not working when displayed at 4k resolutions due to the far z-plane not being set properly. BRG models now support up to 60k vertices previously, the limit was 10k. The animation viewer dummy axis now renders properly. Texture blending for frosted and petrified units now works properly on units with alpha.
Specular is now correctly applied to units and terrain. Fixed point lights not being set to attachpoint position. Fixed attachpoint positions when units are scaled. Fixed units not maintaining their scale when beneath the Fog of War. Doubled the opacity of Fish to make them easier to see. Fixed the display of Siege Tower shadows.
Implemented a potential fix for highlighting particles along with highlighting units. Fixed an issue where ambient game sounds would fail to play. UI Fixed the description of the Old Atlantis map to clarify that the player does not start on an island.
Fixed the Regicide description to clarify that the player starts with a Citadel rather than a Fortress. Fixed the Sentinel history file to no longer reference a specific number of Sentinels, since it is a variable based on the balance. All civilizations can now see how many charges they have of a given god power. The Tornado god power now appears on the minimap for its entire duration and not longer.
The Locust Swarm god power is now properly displayed on the minimap. Kronos can now time shift Markets by clicking the corresponding button in the Market UI. Fire Ships now display the correct upgrade in the technology tree. Updated all costs in the technology tree to display the correct values.
Observers are no longer shown the ELO dialog at the end of the game. Fixed the auto-queue not displaying when multiple buildings are selected. Removed in-game settings for Twitch. Monks can now properly attack all units. Sea Snakes can now properly attack all units. Automaton: Reduced health from to hp. The Shockwave god power now correctly affects animals. Horns of Consecration: Increased the bonus favor granted per Town Center from 0.
The Volcanic Forge technology now properly applies its benefits to Cheiroballistae. Fire Lance: Reduced training time from 15 to 12 seconds. The Fire Lance can now properly Garrison. Immortal: Increased pierce attack from 6 to 7. Immortal: Reduced range from 14 to The Immortal is now trainable from the Castle. Monk: Reduced the time it takes Shennong Monks to convert Myth units from 15 to 14 seconds.
The Monkey King can now properly use its special attack on Earth Dragons. Imperial Examination: Now works on Settlements. Imperial Examination: Reduced the overall duration from 60 to 45 seconds.
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You will need to temporarily disable your Ad-blocker to view this page. Back to homepage. Our magic isn't perfect You can help our automatic cover photo selection by reporting an unsuitable photo. The cover is visually disturbing.
The cover is not a good choice. Rich Minimal Serif. Justify Text. Note: preferences and languages are saved separately in https mode. Age of Empires. Credit: see original file. Age of Mythology: The Titans. Suggest as cover photo Would you like to suggest this photo as the cover photo for this article?
Yes, this would make a good choice No, never mind. Thank you for helping! Implemented a potential fix for highlighting particles along with highlighting units. Fixed an issue where ambient game sounds would fail to play. UI Fixed the description of the Old Atlantis map to clarify that the player does not start on an island.
Fixed the Regicide description to clarify that the player starts with a Citadel rather than a Fortress. Fixed the Sentinel history file to no longer reference a specific number of Sentinels, since it is a variable based on the balance. All civilizations can now see how many charges they have of a given god power.
The Tornado god power now appears on the minimap for its entire duration and not longer. The Locust Swarm god power is now properly displayed on the minimap. Kronos can now time shift Markets by clicking the corresponding button in the Market UI. Fire Ships now display the correct upgrade in the technology tree. Updated all costs in the technology tree to display the correct values. Observers are no longer shown the ELO dialog at the end of the game.
Fixed the auto-queue not displaying when multiple buildings are selected. Removed in-game settings for Twitch. Monks can now properly attack all units. Sea Snakes can now properly attack all units. Automaton: Reduced health from to hp. The Shockwave god power now correctly affects animals.
Horns of Consecration: Increased the bonus favor granted per Town Center from 0. The Volcanic Forge technology now properly applies its benefits to Cheiroballistae. Fire Lance: Reduced training time from 15 to 12 seconds. The Fire Lance can now properly Garrison. Immortal: Increased pierce attack from 6 to 7. Immortal: Reduced range from 14 to The Immortal is now trainable from the Castle.
Monk: Reduced the time it takes Shennong Monks to convert Myth units from 15 to 14 seconds. The Monkey King can now properly use its special attack on Earth Dragons. Imperial Examination: Now works on Settlements. Imperial Examination: Reduced the overall duration from 60 to 45 seconds. Recreation: Increased the number of villagers resurrected from 3 to 4. Great Flood: Now picks up all units it hits. Great Flood: Reduced the maximum damage dealt to buildings from to Great Flood: Reduced the hack damage dealt over time from 2.
House Altars: Reduced the food, wood, and gold required to research the technology from to Increased the Favor cost from 10 to Landlord Spirit: Can now also be researched in the Temple. Chariot Archers can no longer garrison inside Siege Towers. Egyptian laborers now construct all wall lengths at the same rate. Shifting Sands: Reduced the minimum unit health shifted from to Myrmidon: Increased unit health from to Bellerophon Hero : Reduced hack damage of the special attack from 70 to Hippolyta Hero : Reduced the speed of her attack animation from 2 to 1.
Polyphemus Hero : Increased health from to hp. Polyphemus Hero : Updated his special attack to only target Myth units, though it is now an instant kill. Reduced the Tower build limit from 16 to Reduced the Fortress build limit from 10 to 8. Reduced the Sky Passage build limit from 10 to 4. Reduced the number of starting Villagers for the Atlanteans from 6 to 5. Reduced the amount of Favor generated per Atlantean Town Center from 0. Addressed an issue that could result in some players gaining an ELO rank in the billions without first accomplishing the truly mythic feats it would take to do so.
Fixed an issue where Danish computers would interpret data strings in a unique way that caused the Tornado and Great Flood god powers to desync the game and fail to deal damage to gaia units. Special thanks to jesper for helping with this one. Fixed an issue with scenarios not transferring properly when hosted from a Workshop mod. Fixed an issue where certain lobby options would be disabled when the Scenario game type was selected. An issue where players who quit the game early could cause others to desync.
A rare desync caused when using formations with a group that included villagers. In addition to these fixes, additional options have been added to guard against desyncs caused by custom mods: Players with mods that are prone to desyncing are no longer able to quick-search for a match. Added an option to the mods screen to automatically disable any mods that may cause a desync. Fixed game patch. Added populationcap config option to game patch.
AI user variables can now return strings.
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